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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended May 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-38594

 

TILRAY, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

82-4310622

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

655 Madison Avenue, Suite 1900

New York, NY

10065

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (844) 845-7291

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

TLRY

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  Yes No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  YES NO 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Stock Market on June 30, 2020, was approximately $675.6 million.

As of July 22, 2021 there were 449,220,809 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, issued and outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III incorporates certain information by reference from the definitive proxy statement to be filed by the registrant in connection with the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”) with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the year ended May 31, 2021, provided that if such Proxy Statement is not filed within such period, such information will be included in an amendment to this Form 10‑K to be filed within such 120-day period.

 

 

 


 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

17

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

45

Item 2.

Properties

45

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

46

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

50

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

51

Item 6.

[Reserved]

52

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

53

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

72

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

74

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

128

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

128

Item 9B.

Other Information

130

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

131

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

131

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

131

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

131

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

131

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

132

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

136

 

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, “we,” “our,” “us,” “Tilray,” and the “Company” refer to Tilray, Inc. and, where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries. This report contains references to our trademarks and trade names and to trademarks and trade names belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this report may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.


 

1


 

 

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION

 

On December 15, 2020, Tilray, Inc. and Aphria Inc. (“Aphria”) entered into an Arrangement Agreement (as amended, the “Arrangement Agreement”), pursuant to which Tilray acquired all of the issued and outstanding common shares of Aphria pursuant to a plan of arrangement (the “Plan of Arrangement”) under the Ontario Business Corporations Act (the “Arrangement”). The transaction closed on April 30, 2021. The Arrangement was structured as a reverse acquisition pursuant to which Tilray is the legal acquirer and Aphria is the acquirer for accounting purposes. Aphria’s historical financial statements became the historical financial statements of Tilray. The acquired assets and liabilities of Tilray are included in the consolidated balance sheets as of April 30, 2021 and the results of its operations and cash flows are included in the consolidated statement of income (loss) and comprehensive income (loss) and cash flows for periods beginning after April 30, 2021. The operating results for the prior years are those of Aphria. Prior to April 30, 2021 Aphria was a foreign private issuer reporting its financial statements under International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standard Boards. The financial statements of Tilray in this Form 10-K are presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”).

In addition, on the effective date of the Arrangement, Tilray changed its fiscal year from a year ending December 31 to a year ending May 31, to conform its fiscal year end to that of Aphria.

 

2


 

PART I

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2021 (the “Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, relating to our business and financial outlook, which are based on our current beliefs, assumptions, expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about future events only as of the date of this Form 10-K, and are not statements of historical fact. We make such forward-looking statements pursuant to the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.  These statements are often identified by the use of words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions or variations. Such forward-looking statements and forward-looking information are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements or forward-looking information. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified in this Form 10-K and those discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factor Summary” set forth below, titled “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K, and  titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” set forth in Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K, and in our other SEC and Canadian public filings. Therefore, these forward-looking statements are not guarantees or promises of our future performance and involve risks, uncertainties, estimates and assumptions that are difficult to predict. As a result, our actual outcomes and results may differ materially from those expressed in these forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on any of these forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date hereof, unless it is specifically otherwise stated to be made as of a different date. We undertake no obligation to further update any such statement, or the risk factors described in Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors,” to reflect new information, the occurrence of future events or circumstances or otherwise.

Risk Factor Summary

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks that we face, can be found under the heading “Item 1A—Risk Factors” below.

 

We are in the early stages of our integration efforts following completion of the arrangement between Tilray and Aphria on April 30, 2021 (the “Arrangement”) and may experience challenges integrating Tilray and Aphria’s operations and fully achieving the expected benefits of the Arrangement.

 

Risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic have and will continue to impact our operations and adversely adverse effect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our business is dependent upon regulatory approvals and licenses, ongoing compliance and reporting obligations, and timely renewals.

 

Government regulation is evolving, and unfavorable changes could impact our ability to carry on our business as currently conducted and the potential expansion of our business.

 

Our production and processing facilities are integral to our business and adverse changes or developments affecting our facilities may have an adverse impact on our business.

 

We face intense competition, and anticipate competition will increase, which could hurt our business.

 

We may not be able to successfully develop new products or commercialize such products.

 

The long-term effect of the legalization of adult-use cannabis in Canada on the medical cannabis industry is unknown, and may negatively impact our medical cannabis business.

 

United States regulations relating to hemp-derived CBD products are unclear and rapidly evolving, and changes may not develop in the timeframe or manner most favorable to our business objectives.

 

3


 

 

We have a limited operating history and a history of net losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

 

We are subject to litigation, arbitration and demands, which could result in significant liability and costs, and impact our resources and reputation.

 

We are exposed to risks relating to the laws of various countries as a result of our international operations.

 

Our strategic alliances and other third-party business relationships may not achieve the intended beneficial impact and expose us to risks.

 

We depend on significant customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. If we fail to retain or expand our customer relationships or significant customers reduce their purchases, our revenue could decline significantly.

 

Significant interruptions in our access to certain supply chains for key inputs such as raw materials, supplies, electricity, water and other utilities may impair our operations.

 

Management may not be able to successfully establish and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting.

 

The price of our common stock in public markets has experienced and may continue to experience severe volatility and fluctuations.

 

The volatility of our stock and the stockholder base may hinder or prevent us from engaging in beneficial corporate initiatives.

 

The terms of our outstanding warrants may limit our ability to raise additional equity capital or pursue acquisitions, which may impact funding of our ongoing operations and cause significant dilution to existing stockholders.

 

We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the convertible securities in cash or to repurchase the convertible securities upon a fundamental change.

 

We are subject to other risks generally applicable to our industry and the conduct of our business.


 

4


 

 

Item 1. Business.

Our Vision and Purpose

Our vision is to build the leading global cannabis-lifestyle consumer packaged goods company that is changing people’s lives for the better – one person at a time – by inspiring and empowering the worldwide community to live their very best life by providing them with products that meet the needs of their mind, body and soul and invoke a sense of wellbeing. We are a purpose-driven company that, each and every day, seeks to be the trusted partner for our patients and consumers by providing them with a cultivated experience and health and wellbeing through high-quality, differentiated brands and innovative products.

Today, we are a leading global cannabis and consumer packaged goods company, with operations in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia and Latin America, that is pioneering the future of medical, wellness and adult-use cannabis cultivation, processing and distribution. As a purpose-driven organization, we continuously explore ways to deliver on our values and commitments to serve all our key stakeholders, including our stockholders, and seek to implement sustainable business practices.

Our Commitments and Values

We are committed to changing people’s lives for the better by investing in our products, our people and our planet. In an emerging and constantly evolving industry, our values unite us, informing and inspiring the way we work with our employees, patients, consumers and one another. The following core values serve as our compass in our strategic direction and decisions:

 

We put people first.  We are committed to significantly improving the lives of as many people as possible – whether it is meeting the needs of our patients and consumers, building a best-in-class, diverse workforce that’s more representative of all people or giving back and supporting our neighbors in the communities we call home.  We are dedicated to helping people live their very best life.

 

We lead by example.  We are passionate about pioneering the future of medical, wellness and adult-use cannabis and hemp cultivation, processing and distribution in a responsible manner. As a leading global cannabis company, we are committed to helping to establish industry standards that continue to support the health and wellbeing of our employees, our patients and consumers and the communities we call home.

 

We respect the earth.  We are committed to ensuring that our actions and those of our employees have a positive impact on the environment around us. We continue to identify and implement sustainable growing and business practices that provide efficiencies, cost reduction benefits, and lessen our impact on the environment.

 

We take responsibility to heart.  We believe it is our responsibility to ensure the safety of our employees, patients, consumers and the worldwide community. To that end, we are committed to providing access to legal, safe, high-quality cannabis products and to keeping cannabis out of the hands of youth. Our partnerships and programs reflect our ongoing commitment to the safety of our worldwide communities through education, responsible use and meaningful corporate citizenship.

Our Company

Tilray, Inc. (“Tilray”, “we”, “us”, “our” or the “Company”) is a global pioneer in cannabis research, cultivation, production and distribution, incorporated in the State of Delaware on January 24, 2018. On April 30, 2021, Tilray and Aphria completed the Arrangement. The business combination brought together two highly complementary businesses to create a leading cannabis-focused consumer packaged goods company with one of the largest global geographic footprints in the industry.  With a focus on sustainability, our state-of-the-art greenhouses and cultivation operations, processing and distribution facilities make us one of the world’s leading fully-integrated cannabis companies.

We were among the first companies to be permitted to cultivate and sell legal medical cannabis. Today, we supply high-quality medical cannabis products to tens of thousands of patients in 20 countries spanning five continents through our global subsidiaries, and through agreements with established pharmaceutical distributors.

We are a leader in the recreational adult-use market in Canada where we offer a broad-based portfolio of adult-use brands and products, and continue to expand our portfolio to include new innovative cannabis products and formats. We maintain agreements to supply all Canadian provinces and the Yukon and Northwest Territories with our adult-use products for sale through their established retail distribution systems. We believe that our differentiated

 

5


 

portfolio of brands, which is designed to resonate with consumers in all categories, sets us apart from our competitors and is providing us with the ability to establish a leading position in the adult-use market in Canada. Therefore, we are investing in brand building with our consumers, new product innovation, insights, distribution, trade marketing and cannabis education to drive market share in the Canadian adult-use cannabis industry.

Through Fresh Hemp Foods Ltd. (“Manitoba Harvest”), we are also a leading hemp food manufacturer.  Manitoba Harvest produces, manufactures, markets and distributes a broad-based portfolio of hemp-based food products, which are sold in major retailers across the U.S. and Canada.

In November 2020, Aphria acquired SW Brewing Company, LLC (“SweetWater”), the 11th largest craft brewery in the United States according to Brewers Association.  Founded in 1997, SweetWater has broad consumer appeal and has established strong distribution across the United States.  From its state-of-the-art brewery in Atlanta, Georgia, SweetWater produces a balanced variety of year-round and seasonal specialty craft brews.  

Following completion of the Arrangement, we reconstituted our senior management team with members from both Aphria and Tilray.  The experienced new leadership team provides a strong foundation to accelerate our growth and capitalize on the business combination’s many benefits. Our management team is complemented by experienced operators, cannabis industry experts, PhD scientists, horticulturists, and extraction specialists, all of whom apply the latest scientific knowledge and technology to deliver quality-controlled, rigorously tested cannabis products on a large scale.

Our Opportunity

With the closing of the Arrangement, we are now focused on executing our highest return priorities including business integration and accelerating our global growth strategy. Tilray is poised to transform the industry with our highly scalable operational footprint, a curated portfolio of diverse medical and adult-use cannabis brands and products, a multi-continent distribution network, and a robust capital structure to fund our global expansion strategy.

The business combination provides, among others, the following financial and strategic benefits:

 

Strategic Footprint and Operational Scale. We believe that we possess the strategic footprint and operational scale necessary to compete more effectively in today’s consolidating cannabis market with a strong, flexible balance sheet, strong cash balance, and access to capital, which we believe gives us the ability to accelerate growth and deliver long-term sustainable value for stockholders.

 

Low-cost, State-of-the-Art Production & Leading Canadian Adult-Use Cannabis Producer. The demand for our products will be supported by low-cost state-of-the-art cultivation, processing, and manufacturing facilities, and a complete portfolio of branded cannabis 2.0 products to strengthen our leadership position in Canada.

 

Positioned to Pursue an Accelerated International Growth Strategy. We are well-positioned to pursue international growth opportunities with our strong medical cannabis brands, distribution network in Germany, and end-to-end European Union Good Manufacturing Practices (“EU-GMP”) supply chain, which includes EU-GMP production facilities in Canada, Portugal and Germany.

 

Enhanced Consumer Packaged Goods Presence and Infrastructure in the U.S. In the United States, we maintain a strong consumer packaged goods presence and infrastructure with two strategic businesses: SweetWater, a leading cannabis lifestyle branded craft brewer; and Manitoba Harvest, a pioneer in branded hemp food and ingredient products. In the event of federal legalization in the U.S., we expect to be well-positioned to compete in the U.S. cannabis market given our existing strong brands and distribution system in addition to our track record of growth in consumer-packaged goods and cannabis products.

 

Substantial Synergies. The Company expects to deliver significant cost synergies within eighteen months of closing the Arrangement, including cost synergies in the key areas of cultivation and production, cannabis and product purchasing, sales, and marketing, and corporate expenses.

Our Strategy and Outlook

As a leading global cannabis company, we are setting the standard for brand development, product innovation and industrial scale cultivation and automation for the production of cannabis grown in environmentally responsible

 

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conditions. Our overall strategy is to leverage our scale, expertise and capabilities to drive market share, achieve industry-leading, profitable growth and build sustainable, long-term shareholder value. In order to ensure long-term sustainable growth, we continue to focus on leveraging consumer insights, drive category management leadership and assess growth opportunities, including the introduction of our product into new geographies, new innovation and strategic partnerships. In addition, we are relentlessly focused on managing our cost of goods and expenses in order to maintain our strong financial position.  

To achieve our vision of building the leading global cannabis-lifestyle consumer packaged goods company that is changing people’s lives for the better – one person at a time – by inspiring and empowering the worldwide community to live their very best life, we will focus on the following strategies:

 

Build global brands that lead, legitimize and define the future of cannabis. As the markets where cannabis is legal today continue to grow and develop and as cannabis legalizes in more countries around the world, we see unique opportunities to introduce, market and distribute our broad portfolio of differentiated brands, that will appeal to a diverse base of patients and consumers. We believe we are well positioned to develop leading global brands and drive sustainable growth.

 

Develop innovative products and form factors that change the way the world consumes cannabis. We plan to continue to develop innovative products and form factors that possess the most consumer demand and are truly differentiated from our competitors, while optimizing our production capabilities. We will continue to invest in innovation in order to continue to provide our patients and consumers with a differentiated portfolio of products that exceeds their expectations and meets their needs.

 

Grow and leverage our investment in craft beer and hemp-based food. We continue to grow the SweetWater brand by expanding our distribution footprint into new territories and focusing on new product development and innovation that delights our consumers.  We seek to drive growth in our Manitoba Harvest brand and other hemp-based food and ingredients products by leveraging our consumer insights and consumer marketing activities, new product development as well as educating the consumer on the benefits from hemp-based foods.

 

Expand the availability of pure, precise, and predictable medical cannabis products for patients around the world. Since 2014, we have seen an increase in the demand for medical cannabis from both patients, doctors and governments in conjunction with a shift in the medical community, which  is increasingly recognizing medical cannabis as a viable option for the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of health conditions. We are focused on driving accessibility to high-quality medical cannabis that is accessible to all and we are well-positioned to do so on a global basis through our EU-GMP certified facilities in Canada, Portugal and Germany.

 

Leverage our operational scale providing low-cost, high quality production. We believe we have the operational scale necessary to compete more effectively in today’s consolidating cannabis market.  Our state-of-the-art facilities are among the lowest cost production operations with the capabilities to produce a complete portfolio of form factors and products, including flower, pre-roll, capsules, vapes, edibles and beverages.   We also have a strong, flexible balance sheet, cash balance and access to capital, which we believe will give us the ability to accelerate growth and deliver long-term sustainable value for our stockholders.

Reportable Segments

Our business is primarily organized around our product categories, each of which have very different target consumers, go-to-market strategies, distribution networks and margins.  This enables us to track and measure our success and build processes for repeatable success in each of these categories. As a result, we have defined our operating segments on a product category basis, as this aligns with how our Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) manages our business, including resource allocation and performance assessment.  We report our operating results in five segments:

 

Cannabis business – Cultivation, production, distribution and sale of both medical and adult-use cannabis products

 

Distribution business – Purchase and resale of pharmaceutical and wellness products to customers

 

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Beverage alcohol business – Production, distribution and sale of beverage alcohol products

 

Wellness business – Production, marketing and distribution of hemp-based food and other wellness products

 

Business under development – Operations in which we have not received final licensing or have not commenced commercial sales from operations  

Revenue in these five business segments, and the year over year comparison, is as follows:

(in thousands of United States dollars)

 

Year Ended

May 31,

2021

 

 

% of

Total

revenue

 

 

Year Ended

May 31,

2020

 

 

% of

Total

revenue

 

 

Year Ended

May 31,

2019

 

 

% of

Total

revenue

 

Cannabis business

 

$

264,334

 

 

46%

 

 

$

153,477

 

 

36%

 

 

$

67,592

 

 

36%

 

Distribution business

 

 

277,300

 

 

48%

 

 

 

275,430

 

 

64%

 

 

 

119,427

 

 

64%

 

Beverage alcohol business

 

 

29,661

 

 

5%

 

 

 

 

 

0%

 

 

 

 

 

0%

 

Wellness business

 

 

5,794

 

 

1%

 

 

 

 

 

0%

 

 

 

 

 

0%

 

Business under development

 

 

 

 

0%

 

 

 

 

 

0%

 

 

 

 

 

0%

 

Total revenue

 

$

577,089

 

 

100%

 

 

$

428,907

 

 

100%

 

 

$

187,019

 

 

100%

 

Excise taxes

 

 

(64,004

)

 

(11%)

 

 

 

(23,581

)

 

(5%)

 

 

 

(7,716

)

 

(4)%

 

Net revenue

 

$

513,085

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

405,326

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

179,303

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue from our cannabis operations from the following sales channel and the year over year comparison is as follows:

Revenue by cannabis sales channel

Cannabis revenue by market

 

Year Ended

May 31,

2021

 

 

% of

Total

revenue

 

 

Year Ended

May 31,

2020

 

 

% of

Total

revenue

 

 

Year Ended

May 31,

2019

 

 

% of

Total

revenue

 

Revenue from medical cannabis products

 

$

25,539

 

 

 

10

%

 

$

28,685

 

 

 

19

%

 

$

33,017

 

 

 

49

%

Revenue from adult-use cannabis products

 

 

222,930

 

 

 

84

%

 

 

112,207

 

 

 

73

%

 

 

30,236

 

 

 

45

%

Revenue from wholesale cannabis products

 

 

6,615

 

 

 

3

%

 

 

12,585

 

 

 

8

%

 

 

4,339

 

 

 

6

%

Revenue from international cannabis products

 

 

9,250

 

 

 

3

%

 

 

 

 

 

0

%

 

 

 

 

 

0

%

Total cannabis revenue by market

 

 

264,334

 

 

 

100

%

 

 

153,477

 

 

 

100

%

 

 

67,592

 

 

 

100

%

Excise taxes

 

 

(62,942

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(23,581

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(7,716

)

 

 

 

 

Cannabis net revenue

 

$

201,392

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

129,896

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

59,876

 

 

 

 

 

Our Brands and Products

Our brand and product strategy centers on developing a broad portfolio of differentiated brands and products designed to appeal to diverse groups of patients and consumers. Our brand and product activities are designed to comply with all local regulations and requirements, including applicable labelling and marketing restrictions.

Our Medical Brands

We currently cultivate, produce, market and distribute medical cannabis products under the Tilray, Aphria and Broken Coast brands. We make our products available to patients, physicians, clinics, pharmacies, governments, hospitals, and researchers, for commercial purposes, compassionate access, and clinical research.

 

Tilray - The Tilray brand has been established as a global medical cannabis brand and is designed to appeal to prescribers and patients in the global medical market by offering a wide range of high-quality, pharmaceutical-grade medical cannabis and cannabinoid-based products.  We believe patients choose the Tilray brand because we adopted rigorous quality standards and the brand is a trusted, scientific based brand known for its pure, precise and predictable medical-grade products.

 

Aphria - Since 2014, the Aphria brand is a leading, trusted choice for Canadian patients seeking high quality pharmaceutical-grade medical cannabis. Today, the Aphria brand continues to be a leading brand in Canada and, we will continue to leverage its market leadership as we develop our medical cannabis markets internationally under the Aphria brand.

 

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Broken Coast - Medical cannabis products under the Broken Coast brand are grown in small batches in single-strain rooms, with a commitment to product quality in order to meet patient expectations.

We are committed to meeting the needs of our patients whether they are looking for more natural options for their medical needs, exploring their options in wellness, or seeking alternatives in their lifestyle. Accessibility is a top priority for Tilray. We are committed to ensuring patients have access to the medication they depend on through a strong supply chain and dedicated support through our dedicated patient care team. Our product lines focus on active ingredients and standardized, well-defined preparation methods. We use formulations and delivery formats that are intended to allow for consistent and measured dosing, and we test all our products for potency and purity. Each of our commercial products are developed with comprehensive analysis and thorough documentation.

We take a scientific approach to our medical-use product development which we believe establishes credibility and trust in the medical community. We produce products that are characterized by well-defined and reproducible cannabinoid and terpene content, formulated for stable pharmacokinetic profiles, which are customizable in a variety of formulations. We continue to conduct extensive research and development activities and develop and promote new products for medical use.  

Our Adult-Use Brands

We believe that our portfolio of brands, developed for consumers across broad demographics and targeted segments, remains unmatched in the industry. With a focus on brand building, innovation, loyalty and conversion, we seek to drive growth with our differentiated portfolio of brands and products, both in sales and market share across categories. The Company is investing capital and resources to establish a leadership position in the adult-use market in Canada. These investments are focused on brand building with consumers, product innovation, distribution, trade marketing and cannabis education. Our strategy is to develop a brand focused portfolio that resonates with consumers in all category segments.

We are positioned to grow our adult-use brand portfolio to specifically meet the different consumer segments of the adult-use cannabis market. We leverage our selection of strains to offer each consumer segment a different experience through its product and terpene profiles, while also focusing on the value proposition for each of these segments as it relates to price, potency and product assortment. We also have a license agreement in place that allows us to produce and distribute certain branded adult-use products in Canada, including Marley Natural™ and Grail™.

Each brand is unique to a specific consumer segment and designed to meet the needs of these targeted segments, as described below. Our portfolio of brands and products and our marketing activities have been carefully curated and structured to enable us to develop and promote our brands and product lines in an effective and compliant manner.  We continue to develop additional brands and new products, such as edibles and beverages, with more innovative products in our pipeline. Our brand portfolio is currently focused on:

ECONOMY BRANDS

B!NGO

B!NGO is like a nice cold beer on a summer’s day. Our products hit the spot and gives consumers that little something that lets them enjoy the moment.

It’s the everyday companion that keeps it light and simple.

The Batch

A no-frills cannabis value brand focused on delivering quality cannabis flower and pre-rolls at competitive prices. The Batch categorizes its product offering by potency rather than cultivar, allowing us to offer quality cannabis at prices that beat the illicit market.

VALUE BRANDS

P’tite Pof

Inspired by Québécois culture, casse-croûte signage and your local dépanneur. Straightforward, functional, bold, charming and iconic. Our traditional blue and red with a modern twist.

Dubon

“The good stuff”, a vibrantly Québécois cannabis brand and champion of inspired, creative living. Dubon offers master-crafted cannabis cultivars as whole flower and pre-rolls, exclusively available in Québec.

 

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CORE BRANDS

Good Supply

Quality Bud, No B.S.  Good Supply is brand that embraces the goodness of classic cannabis culture – it speaks your language and reminds you of when you first fell in love with cannabis.

Solei Sungrown Cannabis (“Solei”)

Solei is a brand designed to embrace the bright Moments in your day. Solei’s Moments-based products help to make cannabis simple, approachable and welcoming.

Marley Natural

Crafted with deep respect for wellness and the positive potential of the herb.

Chowie Wowie

An edibles’ brand bringing the ‘wow’ with perfectly crafted fusions of flavor offered in an array of reliably dosed cannabis-infused chocolates and gummies in THC and CBD varieties.

Canaca

A brand that proudly builds on its homegrown heritage with cannabis whole flower, pre-rolls, oil products and pure cannabis vapes handcrafted by and for Canadian cannabis enthusiasts. Our plants are sourced in BC and expertly cultivated in Ontario for homegrown, down-to-earth quality that’s enjoyed across Canada.

PREMIUM BRANDS

RIFF

RIFF is not your conventional cannabis brand. It is a brand by creatives for creatives. An unconventional brand, fueled by creativity and collaboration

PREMIUM + BRANDS

Broken Coast

West Coast, Naturally.  Broken Coast relies on small batch growing techniques / craft approach with a reputation for its high-quality flower, aroma, bud composition, and heavy trichome appearance that delivers an incredible experience.

Grail

Grail offers discerning connoisseurs a collection of sought-after cultivars and top-shelf products.

Our Wellness Brands

Manitoba Harvest develops, manufactures, markets and distributes a diverse portfolio of hemp-based food and wellness products under various brands, which include Manitoba Harvest, Hemp Hearts, Hemp Yeah!, Hemp Bliss, Just Hemp Foods, and Mighty Seed Hemp Co.

Our Beverage Alcohol Brands

SweetWater has created an award-winning lineup of year-round, seasonal and specialty beers under a portfolio of brands closely aligned with a cannabis lifestyle, which include the flagship 420 alcoholic beverage offerings and its Oasis® hard seltzers. We believe the SweetWater product offerings, including the 420 Strain series of products, resonate as a cannabis lifestyle brand. SweetWater’s various 420 strains of craft brews use plant-based terpenes and natural hemp flavors that, when combined with select hops, emulate the flavors and aromas of popular cannabis strains to appeal to a loyal consumer base.

Our Operations

Through the investment in building and scaling state-of-the-art facilities, we believe that we maintain one of the highest-quality, lowest cost cannabis production operations in Canada, with the scale and distribution network that differentiates us from our competitors in the industry. We continue to invest in the expansion of our global supply chain to address the unmet needs of patients around the world.

We currently maintain key international operations in Portugal, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Colombia and Argentina as well as strategic relationships in Israel, Denmark and Poland. In establishing our international footprint, we sought to create operational hubs in those continents where we identified the biggest opportunities for growth and designed our operations to ensure consistent, high-quality supply of cannabis products as well as a distribution network.  While these markets are still at various stages of development, and the regulatory environment

 

10


 

around them is either newly formed or still being formed, we are uniquely positioned to bring the knowledge and expertise gained in Canada in order to generate profitable growth in these geographies.

Distribution

Canadian Adult-use Market

Under the Canadian legislative regime, provincial, territorial and municipal governments have the authority to prescribe regulations regarding retail and distribution of adult-use cannabis. As such, the distribution model for adult-use cannabis is prescribed by provincial regulations and differs from province to province. Some provinces utilize government run retailers, while others utilize government-licensed private retailers, and some a combination of the two. All of our adult-use sales are conducted according to the applicable provincial and territorial legislation and through applicable local agencies. 

Through our subsidiaries, Aphria and High Park Holdings Ltd. (“High Park”), we maintain supply agreements for adult-use cannabis with all the provinces and the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories in Canada, representing access to 99.8% of Canadians. 

Aphria is party to a distribution agreement with Great North Distributors to provide sales force and wholesale/retail channel expertise required to efficiently distribute Aphria’s products through each of the provincial/territorial cannabis control agencies.  High Park engaged Kindred Partners Inc. as its sales agent for its adult-use portfolio across all of Canada's provinces and territories, excluding Quebec, in order to leverage Kindred’s industry insights, resources, best-in-class sales team and brand-building services to grow High Park's footprint across the country.  We also engage Rose LifeSciences Ltd. as our sale agent exclusively for the Province of Quebec, representing our entire brand portfolio.

Canadian Medical Market

In Canada, the medical distribution channel follows a direct to patient model and both Tilray and Aphria have online portals for patients to effectively and efficiently manage the process of registering and ordering medical products.

International Medical Markets

We continue to evaluate the most efficient methods and strategic opportunities to distribute and sell our medical cannabis products to patients and pharmacies around the world. Through our various subsidiaries and partnerships with distributors, our medical products are available to patients in 20 countries on 5 continents, which include the following international distribution channels:

CC Pharma is a leading importer and distributor of EU-pharmaceuticals for the German market and throughout Europe and we plan to leverage its distribution network in Germany and throughout Europe.

Our products are also distributed by multiple wholesalers and directly to pharmacies in Germany. As a result, we are able to fulfill prescriptions for our medical cannabis products throughout Germany.

We import and distribute compliant medical cannabis products to other international markets, including Italy, Israel, France, Sweden, United Kingdom, and Luxemburg.

In Argentina, ABP, S.A., distributes medical cannabis throughout Argentina under the Argentinian “Compassionate Use” national law, which allows patients with refractory epilepsy, holding a medical prescription from a neurologist, to apply for special access to imported medical cannabis products.

In November 2020, Aphria entered into a strategic relationship with ODI Pharma AB, which gives ODI the exclusive right to sell a defined set of co-branded products in Poland over a five-year period. We will supply medical cannabis product to ODI, which will be processed into finished product, co-branded under the Aphria and ODI brand names, and sold exclusively within the Polish market.  

Wholesale

In Canada, we are authorized to sell wholesale bulk and finished cannabis products to other licensees under the Cannabis Regulations. The bulk wholesale sales and distribution channel requires minimal selling, administrative,

 

11


 

and fulfillment costs. Our focus on the right strain assortment, quality of flower, extraction capabilities and processing, enables us to drive wholesale channel opportunities for revenue growth. 

Recent changes in the Canadian market resulted in more competitors moving towards an asset light model through the rationalization of cultivation facilities. As this transition occurs, the Company anticipates demand for its saleable flower to increase, providing new opportunities in the wholesale channel.   

We also intend to expand our capabilities outside of saleable flower, as our quality of extraction processes continue to grow into new categories with the consumption of new cannabis 2.0 products. We plan to be selective in choosing partners, with the intent to secure supply agreements to further optimize and drive efficiency within our supply chain and operations.  While we intend to pursue wholesale sales channels as part of our growth strategies in Canada, these sales will continue to be used to aid in balancing inventory levels.

Wellness Sales and Distribution

Our wellness sales consist of hemp seed and other hemp-based food products, which are sold to retailers, wholesalers, and direct to consumers. We are a leading provider of hemp seeds and related food products that are sold in over 17,000 retail locations in the United States and Canada and available globally in 19 countries.

Beverage Alcohol Sales and Distribution

In the U.S., our craft beer is distributed under a three-tier model utilized for beverage alcohol. Distribution points include approximately 29,000 off-premises retail locations ranging from independent bottle shops to national chains. SweetWater’s significant on-premises business allows consumers to enjoy its varietals in more than 10,000 restaurants and bars. Further, in addition to its traditional distribution footprint, SweetWater 420 Extra Pale Ale and Elevated HAZY IPA are served on all Delta Air Lines flights nationwide plus internationally totaling more than 50 countries across six continents which have served to extend SweetWater’s brand reach on both a national and international level. The Company supplements this distribution with Delta Air Lines through a kiosk in Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson Airport and secured access to distribute through an on-premise location at the Denver International Airport. SweetWater is also available in Canada through limited distribution within Ontario and Quebec.

Regulatory Environment

Canadian Medical and Adult-Use

Medical and adult-use cannabis in Canada is regulated under the federal Cannabis Act (Canada) (the “Cannabis Act”) and the Cannabis Regulations (“CR”) promulgated under the Cannabis Act. Both the Cannabis Act and CR came into force in October 2018, superseding earlier legislation that only permitted commercial distribution and home cultivation of medical cannabis. The following are the highlights of the current federal legislation:

a federal license is required for companies to cultivate, process and sell cannabis for medical or non-medical purposes. Health Canada, a federal government entity, is the oversight and regulatory body for cannabis licenses in Canada;

allows individuals to purchase, possess and cultivate limited amounts of cannabis for medical purposes and, for individuals over the age of 18 years, for adult-use recreational purposes;

enables the provinces and territories to regulate other aspects associated with recreational adult-use. In particular, each province or territory may adopt its own laws governing the distribution, sale and consumption of cannabis and cannabis accessory products, and those laws may set lower maximum permitted quantities for individuals and higher age requirements;

promotion, packaging and labelling of cannabis is strictly regulated. For example, promotion is largely restricted to the place of sale and age-gated environments (i.e., environments with verification measures in place to restrict access to persons of legal age). Promotions that appeal to underage individuals are prohibited;

since the current federal regime came into force on October 17, 2018, certain classes of cannabis, including dried cannabis and oils, have been permitted for sale into the medical and adult-use markets;

following amendments to the CR that came into force on October 17, 2019 (often referred to as Cannabis 2.0 regulations), other non-combustible form-factors, including edibles, topicals, and extracts (both ingested and inhaled), are permitted in the medical and adult-use markets;

 

12


 

export is restricted to medical cannabis, cannabis for scientific purposes, and industrial hemp; and

sale of medical cannabis occurs on a direct-to-patient basis from a federally licensed provider, while sale of adult-use cannabis occurs through retail-distribution models established by provincial and territorial governments.

All provincial and territorial governments have, to varying degrees, enacted regulatory regimes for the distribution and sale of recreational adult-use cannabis within their jurisdiction, including minimum age requirements. The retail-distribution models for adult-use cannabis varies nationwide:

Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island adopted a government-run model for retail and distribution;

Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador adopted a hybrid model with some aspects, including distribution and online retail being government-run while allowing for private licensed retail stores;

Manitoba and Saskatchewan adopted a private model, with privately-run retail stores and online sales, with distribution in Manitoba managed by the provincial government;

the three northern territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut adopted a model that mirrors their government-run liquor distribution model.

United States Regulation of Hemp

Hemp products are subject to state and federal regulation in respect to the production, distribution and sale of products intended for human ingestion or topical application. Hemp is categorized as Cannabis sativa L., a subspecies of the cannabis genus. Numerous unique, chemical compounds are extractable from Hemp, including CBD. Hemp, as defined in the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (the “2018 Farm Bill”), is distinguishable from marijuana, which also comes from the Cannabis sativa L. subspecies, by its absence of more than trace amounts (0.3% or less) of the psychoactive compound THC.

The 2018 Farm Bill preserves the authority and jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), under the Food Drug & Cosmetic Act (the “FD&C Act”), to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and sale of food, drugs, dietary supplements, and cosmetics, including products that contain Hemp extracts and derivatives, such as CBD. As a result, the FD&C Act will continue to apply to Hemp-derived food, drugs, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and devices introduced, or prepared for introduction, into interstate commerce. As a producer and marketer of Hemp-derived products, the Company must comply with the FDA regulations applicable to manufacturing and marketing of certain products, including food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.

As a result of the 2018 Farm Bill, federal law dictates that CBD derived from Hemp is not a controlled substance; however, CBD derived from Hemp may still be considered a controlled substance under applicable state law. Individual states take varying approaches to regulating the production and sale of Hemp and Hemp-derived CBD. Some states explicitly authorize and regulate the production and sale of Hemp-derived CBD or otherwise provide legal protection for authorized individuals to engage in commercial Hemp activities. Other states, however, maintain drug laws that do not distinguish between marijuana and Hemp and/or Hemp-derived CBD which results in Hemp being classified as a controlled substance under certain state laws.

European Union Medical Use

While each country in the European Union (“EU”) has its own laws and regulations, many common practices are being adopted relative to the developing and growing medical cannabis market. For example, to ensure quality and safe products for patients, many EU countries only permit the import and sale of medical cannabis from EU-GMP certified manufacturers.

The EU requires adherence to EU-GMP standards for the manufacture of active substances and medicinal products, including cannabis products. The EU system for certification of GMP allows a Competent Authority of any EU member state to conduct inspections of manufacturing sites and, if the strict EU-GMP standards are met, to issue a certificate of EU-GMP compliance that is also accepted in other EU member countries.

 

13


 

Craft Brewing in the United States

The alcoholic beverage industry in the United States is regulated by federal, state and local governments. These regulations govern the production, sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages, including permitting, licensing, marketing and advertising. To operate its production facilities, SweetWater must obtain and maintain numerous permits, licenses and approvals from various governmental agencies, including but not limited to, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (the “TTB”), the FDA, state alcohol regulatory agencies and state and federal environmental agencies. Our brewery operations are subject to audit and inspection by the TTB at any time.

In addition, the beer industry is subject to substantial federal and state excise taxes.  Excise taxes may be increased in the future by the federal government or any state government or both. In the past, increases in excise taxes on alcoholic beverages have been considered in connection with various governmental budget-balancing or funding proposals.

 

Environmental Regulation

Our cannabis and brewing operations are subject to environmental regulations and local permitting requirements and agreements regarding, among other things, air emissions, water discharges and the handling and disposal of hazardous wastes. While we have no reason to believe the operation of our facilities violates any such regulation or requirement, if such a violation were to occur, or if environmental regulations were to become more stringent in the future, we could be adversely affected.

Competitive Conditions

Cannabis Market

We continue to face intense competition from the illicit market as well as other companies, some of which may have longer operating histories and more financial resources and manufacturing and marketing experience. With potential consolidation in the cannabis industry, we could face increased competition by larger and better financed competitors.

Growers of cannabis and retailers operating in the illicit market continue to hold significant market share in Canada and are effectively competitors to our business.  Illicit market participants divert customers away through product offering, price point, anonymity and convenience. 

Outdoor cultivation also significantly reduces the barrier to entry by reducing the start-up capital required for new entrants in the cannabis industry. It may also ultimately lower prices as capital expenditure requirements related to growing outside are typically much lower than those associated with indoor growing. Further, the licensed outdoor cultivation capacity is extremely large. While outdoor cultivation is almost exclusively extraction grade, its presence in the market will have a negative effect on pricing of extraction grade wholesale cannabis.

As of July 2, 2021, Health Canada has issued approximately 700 active licenses to cannabis cultivators, processors and sellers. Health Canada licenses are limited to individual properties. As such, if a licensed producer seeks to commence production at a new site, it must apply to Health Canada for a new license. As of May 31, 2021, roughly 2,000 authorized retail cannabis stores have opened across Canada. As demand for legal cannabis increases and the number of authorized retail distribution points increases, we believe new competitors are likely to enter the Canadian cannabis market. Nevertheless, we believe our brand recognition combined with the quality, consistency, and variety of cannabis products we offer will allow us to maintain a prominent position in the Canadian adult use and medical markets.

Competition is also based on product innovation, product quality, price, brand recognition and loyalty, effectiveness of marketing and promotional activity, the ability to identify and satisfy consumer preferences, as well as convenience and service.

Internationally, the capacity of cannabis companies to operate is limited to those countries which have legalized aspects of the cultivation, distribution, sale or use of cannabis. We focused on developing assets in certain strategic international jurisdictions which maintain legalized aspects of the cannabis business. With the combination of Tilray and Aphria, we possess operational hubs in continents with significant growth opportunities and the production capability and distribution network to distribute such products throughout the region served by each hub.

 

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The barrier to entry for competitors in these jurisdictions is significantly influenced by the national regulatory landscape with respect to cannabis and the economic climate subsisting in each region.

We expect more countries to pass regulation allowing for the use of medical and/or recreational cannabis. While expansion of the global cannabis market will provide more opportunities to grow our international business, we also expect to experience increased global competition.

Craft Brewing Market

Through SweetWater, we compete in the craft brewing market, as well as in the much larger alcohol beverage market, which encompasses domestic and imported beers, flavored alcohol beverages, spirits, wine, hard ciders and hard seltzers. With the proliferation of participants and offerings in the wider alcohol beverage market and within the craft beer segment, we face significant competition.  There have also been numerous acquisitions and investments in craft brewers by larger breweries and private equity and other investors, which further intensified competition within the craft beer market. 

While the craft beer market is highly competitive, we believe that we possess certain competitive advantages. Our unique portfolio combines an award-winning lineup of craft beers with a unique portfolio of brands closely aligned with a cannabis lifestyle, and supported by a state-of-the-art brewery and strong distribution across the United States. Additionally, as a domestic brewery, we maintain certain competitive advantages over imported beers, such as lower transportation costs, a lack of import charges and superior product freshness.

 

Seasonality

SweetWater’s sales of craft beer generally reflect a degree of seasonality, with comparatively higher sales in the summer and the winter holiday season. Typically, the demand for cannabis and hemp-based products is fairly consistent throughout the calendar year.  In addition, CC Pharma’s revenue tends to be higher in the summer months as patients increase their purchases of pharmaceutical products in order to have sufficient product on hand for summer vacations.  Moreover, the impact of COVID-19 on customer behavior and access to our products may cause temporary seasonal fluctuations or changes to our businesses. Therefore, the results for any particular quarter may not be indicative of the results to be achieved for the full year.

Social and Environmental Initiatives 

In an emerging and constantly evolving industry, our core values unite, inform and inspire the way we interact with employees, patients and consumers. Our commitment to our people, the planet, product quality and innovation helps us create stronger, healthier communities everywhere we do business. Our corporate social responsibility goes beyond our borders. We are committed to exporting our industry-leading knowledge and practices to our global subsidiaries. For the communities we call home, we are vigilant of the impact we have and strive to be a positive contributor to their well-being. Some of the Company’s initiatives in this regard are as follows:

We offer compassionate pricing for eligible patients that require financial assistance.

We employ and continuously improve, sustainable growing and business practices to provide efficiencies, cost reduction benefits and lessen our impact on the environment

Aphria’s Charter Agreement with Drug Free Kids Canada (a Canadian non-profit organization providing parents with evidence-based information about youth and substance use while promoting frequent, balanced parent-youth discussions about drugs) and participation in the Global Cannabis Partnership, reflect our ongoing commitment to the safety of our communities through education, responsible use, and meaningful responsible corporate citizenship in our industry; and

Tilray Educates, originally launched as Aphria Educates, is a program aimed to educate Canadians on responsible and safe use of cannabis products.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

As of May 31, 2021, we have approximately 2,100 employees worldwide. We consider relations with our employees to be good and have never experienced work stoppages. Aside from Portugal, none of our employees are represented by labor unions or are subject to collective bargaining agreements. As is common for most companies

 

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doing business in Portugal, we are subject to a government-mandated collective bargaining agreement which grants employees nominal additional benefits beyond those required by the local labor code.

We are committed to establishing a leadership team and corporate culture that promotes inclusion and diversity as we continue to grow our business and expand our footprint. Diversity and inclusion is a priority for our company, and we seek out talented people from a variety of backgrounds to staff our teams in all our markets.  Aligned with our mission and values, this strategy will shape our future as a leading employer.

Our vision and purpose unite, inform and inspire our employees to apply their talents to make a positive difference.  We foster a collaborative and dynamic work environment providing all employees with the opportunity to work cross-functionally and easily gain exposure to other team’s diverse opinions and perspectives. We strive for every employee to reach their full potential and grow with Tilray.  

Available Information

Our website address is www.tilray.com. We file or furnish annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). You may obtain a copy of any of these reports, free of charge, from the Investors section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that also contains these reports at: www.sec.gov. In addition, copies of our annual report are available, free of charge, on written request to us.

We have a Code of Conduct that applies to our Board of Directors (“Board”) and all of our officers and employees, including, without limitation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer. You can obtain a copy of our Code of Conduct, as well as our Corporate Governance Guidelines and charters for each of the Board’s standing committees, from the Investors section of our website at: www.tilray.com. If we change or waive any portion of the Code of Conduct that applies to any of our directors, executive officers or senior financial officers, we will disclose such information. Information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K or any other report filed with the SEC.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Risks Related to the Arrangement

We may experience difficulties integrating Tilray and Aphria’s operations and realizing the expected benefits of the Arrangement.

The success of the Arrangement will depend in part on our ability to realize the expected operational efficiencies and associated cost synergies and anticipated business opportunities and growth prospects from combining Tilray and Aphria in an efficient and effective manner. We may not be able to fully realize the operational efficiencies and associated cost synergies or leverage the potential business opportunities and growth prospects to the extent anticipated or at all.

The Arrangement was completed on April 30, 2021, and we are in the early stages of our integration efforts. The integration of operations and corporate and administrative infrastructures may require substantial resources and divert management attention. Challenges associated with the integration may include those related to retaining and motivating executives and other key employees, blending corporate cultures, eliminating duplicative operations, and making necessary modifications to internal control over financial reporting and other policies and procedures in accordance with applicable laws. Some of these factors are outside our control, and any of them could delay or increase the cost of our integration efforts.

The integration process could take longer than anticipated and could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of ongoing business, increased tax costs, inefficiencies, and inconsistencies in standards, controls, information technology systems, policies and procedures, any of which could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with employees, customers or other third parties, or our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the transaction, and could harm our financial performance. If we are unable to successfully integrate certain aspects of the operations of Tilray and Aphria or experience delays, we may incur unanticipated liabilities and expenses, and be unable to fully realize the potential benefit of the revenue growth, synergies and other anticipated benefits resulting from the Arrangement, and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

We incurred, and may continue to incur, significant Arrangement-related costs and integration costs in connection with the Arrangement with Aphria.

We incurred, and may continue to incur, significant Arrangement-related costs and integration costs in connection with the Arrangement with Aphria. We may incur additional costs to maintain employee morale and to retain key employees. Unanticipated costs may be incurred in the course of integration, and management cannot ensure that the elimination of duplicative costs or the realization of other efficiencies will offset the transaction and integration costs in the near term or at all.

Risks Related to COVID-19

Risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic have and may continue to impact our operations and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of the coronavirus, or COVID-19, a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to result in extended government-ordered measures affecting significant portions of the global economy, including in the United States, Canada, Portugal, and Germany, where we conduct significant business. The public health crisis caused by COVID-19 and the actions taken and continuing to be taken by governments, businesses and the public have adversely affected, and we expect will continue to adversely affect, our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business, including our operations and our financial condition, will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. These include the duration, severity and scope of the pandemic, the development and availability of effective treatments and vaccines, and further action taken by governments and other third parties in response to the pandemic. In particular, the effects of COVID-19 and government efforts to curtail COVID-19 could impede our production

 

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facilities, increase operating expenses, result in loss of sales, affect our supply chains, impact performance of contractual obligations and require additional expenditures to be incurred.

In connection with the COVID-19 pandemic and to comply with mandates and guidance from governmental authorities, we continue to review and update our operational procedures and safety protocols at our facilities. If such measures are not effective or governmental authorities implement further restrictions, we may be required to take more extreme action, which could include a short or long-term closure of our facilities or reduction in workforce. These measures may impair our production levels or cause us to close or severely limit production at one or more facilities. Further, our operations could be adversely impacted if suppliers, contractors, customers and/or transportation carriers are restricted or prevented from conducting business activities. For example, cannabis retail stores in certain Canadian markets may close voluntarily or be forced by local governments to close or modify their operations, reducing our ability to distribute adult-use cannabis.

Consumer demand for our products, particularly our premium brand offerings, may also be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of reductions in consumers’ disposable income associated with layoffs, and work or pay limitations due to mandatory social distancing and lockdown measures implemented by government authorities. Demand for medical products may be further impacted due to a decrease in patients visiting doctor’s offices and clinics, and cancellation of elective procedures at hospitals. As demand for our products decreases, we may be required to record additional asset impairments, including an impairment of the carrying value of our goodwill, along with other accounting charges.

The following is a summary of certain COVID-19 related operational impacts and associated risks:

 

To date, we have been able to continue operations at all of our cannabis and hemp cultivation and production facilities, including our facilities in Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia and Portugal.  In Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia, production of our cannabis and hemp products is designated as an essential service or otherwise permitted; however, there can be no assurance that such designations will remain in effect. If any of these facilities are deemed non-essential or required to close for a significant period of time, our revenues and our results of operations would be impacted.  Similarly, while the U.S./Canadian border closure exempted the transport of food, which includes our hemp-based food products, as an essential cross-border service, if the U.S.-Canadian border is closed to food transport, our general ability to transport and receive certain raw materials, inputs and final products would be significantly impacted.

 

In Germany, we experienced disruption in the supply of pharmaceutical products to our German distributors, including CC Pharma, and reduced demand due to a decrease in patients visiting doctors’ offices and clinics and the cancellation of elective medical procedures.

 

While we have continued to operate our SweetWater brewery in Atlanta, we experienced some labor shortages, as well as a decline in demand for draft beer products due to closures affecting the on-premise channel and reduced air travel impacting sales to Delta Airlines.

While the United States and certain other jurisdictions are starting to relax restrictions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many jurisdictions are still subject to more significant government mandated closures and other restrictions.  Moreover, with the potential for new and more-transmissible variants, the situation remains dynamic and subject to rapid and possibly material changes.  Given the ongoing and dynamic nature and significance of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact globally, we are not able to enumerate all potential risks to our business. Any of the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including those described above, alone or in combination with others, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Further, any of these negative impacts, alone or in combination with others, could exacerbate many of the other risk factors outlined in this Part I, “Item 1A. Risk Factors”.

Risks Related to the Cannabis Business

Our business is dependent upon regulatory approvals and licenses, ongoing compliance and reporting obligations, and timely renewals.

Our ability to cultivate, process, and sell medical and adult-use cannabis, cannabis-derived extracts and derivative cannabis products in Canada is dependent on maintaining the licenses issued to our operating subsidiaries

 

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by Health Canada under the Cannabis Regulations, or CR. These licenses allow us to produce cannabis in bulk and finished forms and to sell and distribute such cannabis in Canada. They also allow us to export medical cannabis in bulk and finished form to and from specified jurisdictions around the world, subject to obtaining, for each specific shipment, an export approval from Health Canada and an import approval (or no objection notice) from the applicable regulatory authority in the country to or from which the export or import is being made. These CR licenses are valid for fixed periods and need to be renewed at the end of such periods.

We are also required to obtain and maintain certain permits, licenses or other approvals from regulatory agencies in countries and markets outside of Canada in which we operate or to which we export our product, including, in the case of certain countries, the ability to demonstrate compliance with EU-GMP standards. We have received certification of compliance with EU-GMP standards for cultivation and production at Tilray Nanaimo and Tilray Portugal, as well as Part II EU-GMP certification for Aphria One and Part I EU-GMP certification for ARA-Avanti Rx Analytics Inc.’s (“Avanti”) approved facility. These GMP certified facilities are subject to extensive ongoing compliance reviews to ensure that we continue to maintain compliance with current GMP standards. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to comply with these standards. Moreover, future governmental actions in countries where we operate, or export products, may limit or altogether restrict the import and/or export of cannabis products.

Any future cannabis production facilities that we operate in Canada or elsewhere will also be subject to separate licensing requirements under the CR or applicable local requirements. Although we believe that we will meet the requirements for future renewals of our existing licenses and obtain requisite licenses for future facilities, there can be no assurance that existing licenses will be renewed or new licenses obtained on the same or similar terms as our existing licenses, nor can there be any assurance that Health Canada will continue to issue import or export permits on the same terms or on the same timeline, or that other countries will allow, or continue to allow, imports or exports.  An agency’s denial of or delay in issuing or renewing a permit, license or other approval, or revocation or substantial modification of an existing permit, license or approval, could restrict or prevent us from continuing the affected operations, or limit the export and/or import of our cannabis products. In addition, the export and import of cannabis is subject to United Nations treaties establishing country-by-country national estimates and our export and import permits are subject to these estimates which could limit the amount of cannabis we can export to any particular country.

Further, our facilities are subject to ongoing inspections by the governing regulatory authority to monitor our compliance with their licensing requirements. Our existing licenses and any new licenses that we may obtain in the future in Canada or other jurisdictions may be revoked or restricted in the event that we are found not to be in compliance. Should we fail to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements or with conditions set out under our licenses, should our licenses not be renewed when required, be renewed on different terms, or be revoked, we may not be able to continue producing or distributing cannabis in Canada or other jurisdictions or to import or export cannabis products. In addition, we may be subject to enforcement proceedings resulting from a failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements in Canada or other jurisdictions, which could result in damage awards, the suspension, withdrawal or non-renewal of our existing approvals or denial of future approvals, recall of products, the imposition of future operating restrictions on our business or operations or the imposition of fines or other penalties.

Government regulation is evolving, and unfavorable changes could impact our ability to carry on our business as currently conducted and the potential expansion of our business.

We operate in a highly regulated and rapidly evolving industry. The successful execution of our business objectives is contingent upon compliance with all applicable laws and regulatory requirements in Canada (including the Cannabis Act and CR), Europe and other jurisdictions, and obtaining all required regulatory approvals for the production, sale, import and export of our cannabis products. The laws, regulations and guidelines generally applicable to the cannabis industry domestically and internationally may change in ways currently unforeseen. Any amendment to or replacement of existing laws, regulations, guidelines or policies may cause adverse effects to our operations, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The federal legislative framework pertaining to the Canadian cannabis market is still very new. In addition, the governments of every Canadian province and territory have implemented different regulatory regimes for the distribution and sale of cannabis for adult-use purposes within those jurisdictions. There is no guarantee that the

 

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Canadian legislative framework regulating the cultivation, processing, distribution and sale of cannabis will not be amended or replaced or the current legislation will create the growth opportunities we currently anticipate.

In the United States, despite cannabis having been legalized at the state level for medical use in many states and for adult-use in a number of states, cannabis meeting the statutory definition of “marijuana” continues to be categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act, or the CSA, and subject to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, or the CSIEA. Hemp and marijuana both originate from the Cannabis sativa plant and CBD is a constituent of both. “Marihuana” or “marijuana” is defined in the CSA as a Schedule I controlled substance whereas “hemp” is essentially any parts of the Cannabis sativa plant that has not been determined to be marijuana. Pursuant to the 2018 Farm Bill, “hemp,” or cannabis and cannabis derivatives containing no more than 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is now excluded from the statutory definition of “marijuana” and, as such, is no longer a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA. As a result, our activity in the United States is limited to (a) certain corporate and administrative services, including accounting, legal and creative services, (b) supply of study drug for clinical trials under DEA and FDA authorization, and (c) participation in the market for hemp and hemp-derived products containing CBD in compliance with the 2018 Farm Bill.

While the 2018 Farm Bill exempts hemp and hemp derived products from the CSA, the commercialization of hemp products in the United States is subject to various laws, including the 2018 Farm Bill, the FD&C Act, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, or (the “DSHEA”), applicable state and/or local laws, and FDA regulations. See also Risk Factor “United States regulations relating to hemp-derived CBD products are unclear and rapidly evolving, and changes may not develop in the timeframe or manner most favorable to our business objectives”.

Our ability to expand internationally is also contingent, in part, upon compliance with applicable regulatory requirements enacted by governmental authorities and obtaining all requisite regulatory approvals. We cannot predict the impact of the compliance regime that governmental authorities may implement to regulate the adult-use or medical cannabis industry. Similarly, we cannot predict how long it will take to secure all appropriate regulatory approvals for our products, or the extent of testing and documentation that may be required by governmental authorities. The impact of the various compliance regimes, any delays in obtaining, or failure to obtain regulatory approvals may significantly delay or impact the development of markets, products and sales initiatives and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

As the commercial cannabis industry develops in Canada and other jurisdictions, we anticipate that regulations governing cannabis in Canada and globally will continue to evolve.  Further, Health Canada or the regulatory authorities in other countries in which we operate or to which we export our cannabis products may change their administration or application of the applicable regulations or their compliance or enforcement procedures at any time. There is no assurance that we will be able to comply or continue to comply with applicable regulations, which could impact our ability to continue to carry on business as currently conducted and the potential expansion of our business.

We currently incur and will continue to incur ongoing costs and obligations related to regulatory compliance. A failure on our part to comply with regulations may result in additional costs for corrective measures, penalties or restrictions on our business or operations. In addition, changes in regulations, more vigorous enforcement thereof or other unanticipated events could require extensive changes to our operations, increased compliance costs or give rise to material liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our production and processing facilities are integral to our business and adverse changes or developments affecting our facilities may have an adverse impact on our business.

Our cultivation and processing facilities are integral to our business and the licenses issued by applicable regulatory authorities is specific to each of these facilities. Adverse changes or developments affecting these facilities, including, but not limited to, disease or infestation of our crops, a fire, an explosion, a power failure, a natural disaster, an epidemic, pandemic or other public health crisis, or a material failure of our security infrastructure, could reduce or require us to entirely suspend operations at the affected facilities. See also Risk Factor “Risks related to COVID‑19”.

 

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A significant failure of our site security measures and other facility requirements, including failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, could have an impact on our ability to continue operating under our facility licenses and our prospects of renewing our licenses, and could also result in a suspension or revocation of these licenses.

We face intense competition, and anticipate competition will increase, which could hurt our business.

We face, and we expect to continue to face, intense competition from other Licensed Producers and other potential competitors, some of which have longer operating histories and more financial resources than we have. In addition, we anticipate that the cannabis industry will continue to undergo consolidation, creating larger companies with financial resources, manufacturing and marketing capabilities and product offerings that may be greater than ours. As a result of this competition, we may be unable to maintain our operations or develop them as currently proposed, on terms we consider acceptable, or at all.

Health Canada has issued hundreds of licenses for Licensed Producers. The number of licenses granted and the number of Licensed Producers ultimately authorized by Health Canada could have an adverse impact on our ability to compete for market share in Canada. We expect to face additional competition from new market entrants and may experience downward price pressure on our cannabis products as new entrants increase production. If the number of users of cannabis in Canada increases, the demand for products will increase and the Company expects that competition will become more intense, as current and future competitors begin to offer an increasing number of diversified products and pricing strategies.

Our commercial opportunity in the medical and adult-use markets could also be impacted if our competitors produce and commercialize products that, among other things, are safer, more effective, more convenient or less expensive than the products that we may produce, have greater sales, marketing and distribution support than our products, enjoy enhanced timing of market introduction and perceived effectiveness advantages over our products and receive more favorable publicity than our products. To remain competitive, we intend to continue to invest in research and development, marketing and sales and client support.  We may not have sufficient resources to maintain research and development, marketing and sales and client support efforts on a competitive basis.

In addition to the foregoing, the legal landscape for medical and adult-use cannabis is changing internationally. We maintain operations outside of Canada, which may be affected as other countries develop, adopt and change their laws related to medical and adult-use cannabis. Increased international competition, including competition from suppliers in other countries who may be able to produce at lower cost, and limitations placed on us by Canadian or other regulations, might lower the demand for our cannabis products on a global scale.

Competition from the illicit cannabis market could impact our ability to succeed.

We face competition from illegal market operators that are unlicensed and unregulated including illegal dispensaries and illicit market suppliers selling cannabis and cannabis-based products. As these illegal market participants do not comply with the regulations governing the cannabis industry, their operations may have significantly lower costs. The perpetuation of the illegal market for cannabis may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, as well as the perception of cannabis use. Furthermore, given the restrictions on regulated cannabis retail, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that legal cannabis consumers revert to the illicit market as a matter of convenience.

The cannabis industry and market are relatively new and evolving, which could impact our ability to succeed in this industry and market.

We are operating our business in a relatively new industry and market that is expanding globally, and our success depends on our ability to attract and retain consumers and patients. There are many factors which could impact our ability to attract and retain consumers and patients, including but not limited to brand awareness, our ability to continually produce desirable and effective cannabis products and the ability to bring new consumers and patients into the category. The failure to acquire and retain consumers and patients could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

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To remain competitive, we will continue to innovate new products, build brand awareness and make significant investments in our business strategy and production capacity. These investments include introducing new products into the markets in which we operate, adopting quality assurance protocols and procedures, building our international presence and undertaking research and development. These activities may not promote our products as effectively as intended, or at all, and we expect that our competitors will undertake similar investments to compete with us for market share. Competitive conditions, consumer preferences, regulatory conditions, patient requirements, prescribing practices, and spending patterns in this industry and market are relatively unknown and may have unique characteristics that differ from other existing industries and markets and that cause our efforts to further our business to be unsuccessful or to have undesired consequences. As a result, we may not be successful in our efforts to attract and retain customers or to develop new cannabis products and produce and distribute these products in time to be effectively commercialized, or these activities may require significantly more resources than we currently anticipate in order to be successful.

Regulations constrain our ability to market and distribute our products in Canada.

In Canada, there are significant regulatory restrictions on the marketing, branding, product formats, product composition, packaging, and distribution of adult-use cannabis products. For instance, the CR includes a requirement for health warnings on product packaging, the limited ability to use logos and branding (only one brand name and one brand element per package), restrictions on packaging itself, and restrictions on types and avenues of marketing. Cannabis 2.0 regulations, which govern the production and sale of new classes or forms of cannabis products (including vapes and edibles), impose considerable restrictions on product composition, labeling, and packaging in addition to being subject to similar marketing restrictions as existing form factors.  

Further, each province and territory of Canada has the ability to separately regulate the distribution of cannabis within such province or territory (including the legal age), and the rules and regulations adopted vary significantly.  Additional marketing and product composition restrictions have been imposed by some provinces and territories. Such federal and provincial restrictions may impair our ability to differentiate our products and develop our adult-use brands.  Some provinces and territories also impose significant restrictions on our ability to merchandise products; for example, some provinces impose restrictions on investment in retailers or distributors as well as in our ability to negotiate for preferential retail space or in-store marketing. If we are unable to effectively market our products and compete for market share, our sales and results of operations may be adversely affected.    

The adult-use cannabis market in Canada is continuing to develop and may experience supply fluctuations which could result in decreases to prices and revenues.

Since legalization in October 2018 of adult-use cannabis for recreational purposes in Canada, the market for adult-use cannabis is continuing to develop, resulting in fluctuations in supply and demand. Licensed cannabis producers may not be able to produce enough cannabis to meet adult-use demand. This may result in lower than expected sales and revenues and may result in increased competition for sales and sources of supply. This competition may adversely affect our adult-use business and there is no guarantee that we will be able to supply or acquire the supply, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, to meet the demand for adult-use cannabis.

Alternatively, we and other cannabis producers in Canada may produce more cannabis than is needed to satisfy the collective demand of the Canadian medical and adult-use markets, and we may be unable to export that oversupply into other legal markets. As a result, the available supply of cannabis could exceed demand, resulting in a significant decline in the market price for cannabis. If this were to occur, there is no assurance that we would be able to generate sufficient revenue from the sale of medical and adult-use cannabis products to result in profitability and sufficient liquidity. Regulatory restrictions or over supply conditions in our primary markets could result in inventory adjustments.

We may not be able to successfully develop new products or commercialize such products.

Cannabis 2.0 regulations, which came into effect on October 17, 2019 in Canada, permit Canadian Licensed Producers to develop new cannabis form factors, including CBD and THC-infused drinks, edibles and non-flower products, such as vapes. We have and will continue to develop strategic partnerships to participate in these new product market opportunities with partners who can provide complementary product development and support capabilities.

 

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Strategic initiatives around new products involve significant investment of management time and resources in order to successfully execute and maintain, for novel products that may not generate sufficient market demand. Additionally, there can be no guarantee that such new product offerings, even if successfully developed, will have unit economics that generate an appropriate return on investment. The development of new products could result in diversions of management attention, a strain on existing financial and other resources or a lack of product demand for our newly developed form factors, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our vape business is subject to uncertainty in the evolving vape market due to negative public sentiment and regulatory scrutiny.

Cannabis vape products in Canada are regulated under the Cannabis Act and the CR, as well as the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act. The CR sets clear rules and standards for the manufacture, composition, packaging, and marketing of cannabis vape products. Health risks raised in Canada and the United States associated with vaping and accompanying negative public sentiment may prompt Health Canada or individual provinces/territories to further limit or defer industry’s ability to sell cannabis vape products and may also diminish consumer demand for such products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to meet any additional compliance requirements or regulatory restrictions, or remain competitive in the face of unexpected changes in market conditions.

 

Vaping, electronic cigarettes and related products were recently developed and therefore the scientific community has not yet had a sufficient period of time to study the long-term health effects of their use. Currently, there is no way of knowing whether these products are safe for their intended use and the medical community is still studying these products’ health effects. If the scientific community were to determine conclusively that use of any or all of these products poses long-term health risks, market demand for these products and their use could materially decline. Such a determination could also lead to litigation and significant regulation.  

Loss of demand for our vape products, product liability claims and increased regulation stemming from unfavorable scientific studies on cannabis vaping products could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The long-term effect of the legalization of adult-use cannabis in Canada on the medical cannabis industry is unknown, and may negatively impact our medical cannabis business.

According to recent Canadian government statistics, medicinal cannabis patient numbers continue to experience decline. A continued decrease in the overall size of the medical cannabis market in Canada as a result of the legal adult-use market or other factors may reduce our medical sales and revenue prospects in Canada. Factors that may influence demand for medical cannabis include the availability of product in each market, the price of medical cannabis products in relation to similar adult-use cannabis products, and the ease with which each market can be accessed in the individual provinces and territories of Canada. The impact of adult-use cannabis on the medical market is not yet fully understood as the market is still in a state of flux. In addition, the impact of the new form factors, legalized in October 2019, on the medical vs adult-use market is not yet established.

The regulation of cannabis for medical purposes under the CR is expected to be reviewed in light of the adult-use market, which review is scheduled to commence in October 2021. The effect on our business, and the medical cannabis market in general, of such a review is uncertain.

Research regarding the health effects of cannabis is in relatively early stages and subject to further study which could impact demand for cannabis products.

Research and clinical trials on the potential benefits and the short-term and long-term effects of cannabis use on human health remains in relatively early stages and there is limited standardization. As such, there are inherent risks associated with using cannabis and cannabis derivative products. Moreover, future research and clinical trials may draw opposing conclusions to statements contained in articles, reports and studies we relied on or could reach different or negative conclusions regarding the benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing or other facts and perceptions related to cannabis, which could adversely affect social acceptance of cannabis and the demand for our products.

 

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United States regulations relating to hemp-derived CBD products are unclear and rapidly evolving, and changes may not develop in the timeframe or manner most favorable to our business objectives.

Our participation in the market for hemp-derived CBD products in the United States and elsewhere may require us to employ novel approaches to existing regulatory pathways. Although the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill legalized the cultivation of hemp in the United States to produce products containing CBD and other non-THC cannabinoids, it remains unclear how the FDA will regulate these products, and whether and when the FDA will propose or implement new or additional regulations. While, to date, there are no laws or regulations enforced by the FDA which specifically address the manufacturing, packaging, labeling, distribution, or sale of hemp or hemp-derived CBD products and the FDA has issued no formal regulations addressing such matters, the FDA has issued various guidance documents and other statements reflecting its non-binding opinion on the regulation of such products.

The hemp plant and the cannabis/marijuana plant are both part of the same cannabis sativa genus/species of plant, except that hemp, by definition, has less than 0.3% THC content, but the same plant with a higher THC content is cannabis/marijuana, which is legal under certain state laws, but which is not legal under United States federal law. The similarities between these two can cause confusion, and our activities with legal hemp in the United States may be incorrectly perceived as us being involved in federally illegal cannabis. The FDA has stated in guidance and other public statements that it is prohibited to sell a food, beverage or dietary supplement to which THC or CBD has been added. While the FDA does not have a formal policy of enforcement discretion with respect to any products with added CBD, the agency has stated that its primary focus for enforcement centers on products that put the health and safety of consumers at risk, such as those claiming to prevent, diagnose, mitigate, treat, or cure diseases in the absence of requisite approvals. While the agency’s enforcement to date has therefore focused on products containing CBD and that make drug-like claims, there is the risk that the FDA could expand its enforcement activities and require us to alter our marketing for our hemp-derived CBD products or cease distributing them altogether. The FDA could also issue new regulations that prohibit or limit the sale of hemp-derived CBD products. Such regulatory actions and associated compliance costs may hinder our ability to successfully compete in the market for such products.

In addition, such products may be subject to regulation at the state or local levels. State and local authorities have issued their own restrictions on the cultivation or sale of hemp or hemp-derived CBD. This includes laws that ban the cultivation or possession of hemp or any other plant of the cannabis genus and derivatives thereof, such as CBD. State regulators may take enforcement action against food and dietary supplement products that contain CBD, or enact new laws or regulations that prohibit or limit the sale of such products.

The regulation of hemp and CBD in the United States has been constantly evolving, with changes in federal and state laws and regulation occurring on a frequent basis. Violations of applicable FDA and other laws could result in warning letters, significant fines, penalties, administrative sanctions, injunctions, convictions or settlements arising from civil proceedings.  Unforeseen regulatory obstacles or compliance costs may hinder our ability to successfully compete in the market for such products.

Risks related to the Beverage Alcohol Business

Changes in consumer preferences or public attitudes about alcohol could decrease demand for our beverage alcohol products.

If general consumer trends lead to a decrease in the demand for SweetWater’s products or beer in general, including craft beer, our sales and results of operations in the beverage alcohol segment may be adversely affected. There is no assurance that the craft brewing segment will experience growth in future periods. If the markets for wine, spirits or flavored alcohol beverages continue to grow, this could draw consumers away from the beer industry in general and our beverage alcohol products specifically.

Further, the alcoholic beverage industry is subject to public concern and political attention over alcohol-related social problems, including drunk driving, underage drinking and health consequences from the misuse of alcohol. In reaction to these concerns, steps may be taken to restrict advertising, to impose additional cautionary labeling or packaging requirements, or to increase excise or other taxes on beverage alcohol products. Any such developments may have an adverse impact on the financial condition, operating results and cash flows for SweetWater.

 

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Developments affecting production at our brewery could negatively impact financial results for our beverage alcohol busines segment.

Adverse changes or developments affecting our brewery in Atlanta, including, fire, power failure, natural disaster, public health crisis, or a material failure of our security infrastructure, could reduce or require us to entirely suspend operations.  Additionally, due to many factors, including seasonality and production schedules of our various craft beer products and packaging, actual production capacity may fluctuate throughout the year and may not reach full working capacity. If we experience contraction in our sales and brewing volumes, the excess capacity and unabsorbed overhead may have an adverse effect on gross margins, operating cash flows and overall financial performance of SweetWater.

SweetWater faces substantial competition in the beer industry and the broader market for alcoholic beverage products which could impact its business and financial results.

The market for alcoholic beverage products within the United States is highly competitive due to the increasing number of domestic and international beverage companies with similar pricing and target drinkers, the introduction and expansion of hard seltzers, gains in market share achieved by domestic specialty beers and imported beers, and the acquisition of craft brewers by larger brewers. We anticipate competition among domestic craft brewers will also remain strong as existing breweries build more capacity, expand geographically and add more products, flavors and styles. The continued growth in the sales of hard seltzers, craft-brewed domestic beers and imported beers is expected to increase competition in the market for alcoholic beverages within the United States and, as a result, prices and market share of SweetWater’s products may fluctuate and possibly decline.

The beer industry has seen continued consolidation among brewers in order to take advantage of cost savings opportunities for supplies, distribution and operations. Due to the increased leverage that these combined operations have in distribution and sales and marketing expenses, the costs to SweetWater of competing could increase. The potential also exists for these large competitors to increase their influence with their distributors, making it difficult for smaller brewers to maintain their market presence or enter new markets. The increase in the number and availability of competing products and brands, the costs to compete and potential decrease in distribution support and opportunities may adversely affect SweetWater’s business and financial results.

SweetWater is dependent on distributors to deliver sustained growth.

In the United States, SweetWater sells its alcohol beverages to independent beer distributors for distribution to retailers and, ultimately, to consumers. In order for SweetWater to deliver sustained growth and continue its national expansion, it will be required to maintain such relationships and to enter into agreements with additional distributors.  No assurance can be given that SweetWater will be able to maintain its current distribution network or secure additional distributors on terms favorable to SweetWater.  If SweetWater’s existing distribution agreements are terminated, it may not be able to enter into new distribution agreements on substantially similar terms, which may result in an increase in the costs of distribution.  

General Business Risks and Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Operations

We have a limited operating history and a history of net losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We began operating in 2014 and have yet to generate a profit. We intend to continue to expend significant funds to explore potential opportunities and complete strategic mergers and acquisitions, invest in research and development, expand our marketing and sales operations and meet the compliance requirements as a public company.

Our efforts to grow our business may be more costly than we expect and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset higher operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including as a result of unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, the other risks described herein and other unknown events. The amount of future net losses will depend, in part, on the growth of our future expenses and our ability to generate revenue. If we continue to incur losses in the future, the net losses and negative cash flows incurred to date, together with any such future losses, will have an adverse effect on our stockholders’

 

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equity and working capital. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with producing and selling cannabis and beverage alcohol products, as outlined herein, we are unable to accurately predict when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. Even if we achieve profitability in the future, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market price of our common stock may significantly decrease and our ability to raise capital, expand our business or continue our operations may be impaired.

We are subject to litigation, arbitration and demands, which could result in significant liability and costs, and impact our resources and reputation.

Tilray has previously been named as a defendant in a class action relating to the prior merger of Privateer Holdings, Inc. with and into a wholly owned subsidiary (referred to as the Downstream Merger), and a class action related to the drop in our stock price. In addition, legal proceedings covering a wide range of matters are pending or threatened in various U.S. and foreign jurisdictions against the Company. The type of claims that may be raised in these proceedings include product liability, unfair trade practices, antitrust, tax, contraband shipments, patent infringement, employment matters, claims for contribution and claims of competitors, shareholders or distributors. Litigation is subject to uncertainty and it is possible that there could be adverse developments in pending or future cases.

We are also subject to other litigation and demands relating to business decisions, regulatory and industry changes, supply relationships, and our business acquisition matters and related activities. Litigation may include claims for substantial compensatory or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. Tilray and its various subsidiaries are also involved from time to time in other reviews, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal) by governmental and self-regulatory agencies regarding our business. These matters could result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief.

We have incurred and may continue to incur substantial costs and expenses relating directly to these actions. Responding to such actions could divert management’s attention away from our business operations and result in substantial costs. For more information on our pending legal proceedings, see “Part I, Item 3. Legal Proceedings”.

We are exposed to risks relating to the laws of various countries as a result of our international operations.

We currently conduct operations in multiple countries and plan to expand these international operations. As a result of our operations, we are exposed to various levels of political, economic, legal and other risks and uncertainties associated with operating in or exporting to these jurisdictions. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, changes in the laws, regulations and policies governing the production, sale and use of our products, political instability, instability at the United Nations level, currency controls, fluctuations in currency exchange rates and rates of inflation, labor unrest, changes in taxation laws, regulations and policies, restrictions on foreign exchange and repatriation and changing political conditions and governmental regulations relating to foreign investment and the cannabis business more generally.

Changes, if any, in the laws, regulations and policies relating to the advertising, production, sale and use of our products or in the general economic policies in these jurisdictions, or shifts in political attitude related thereto, may adversely affect the operations, or profitability of our operations, in these countries. As we explore novel business models, such as global co-branded products, cannabinoid clinics and cannabis retail, international regulations will become increasingly challenging to manage. Specifically, our operations may be affected in varying degrees by government regulations with respect to, but not limited to, restrictions on advertising, production, price controls, export controls, controls on currency remittance, increased income taxes, restrictions on foreign investment, land and water use restrictions and government policies rewarding contracts to local competitors or requiring domestic producers or vendors to purchase supplies from a particular jurisdiction. Failure to comply strictly with applicable laws, regulations and local practices could result in additional taxes, costs, civil or criminal fines or penalties or other expenses being levied on our international operations, as well as other potential adverse consequences such as the loss of necessary permits or governmental approvals.

Furthermore, there is no assurance that we will be able to secure the requisite import and export permits for the international distribution of our products. Countries may also impose restrictions or limitations on imports that require the use of, or confer significant advantages upon, producers within that particular country. As a result, we may be

 

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required to establish facilities in one or more countries in the EU (or elsewhere) where we wish to distribute our products in order to take advantage of the favorable legislation offered to producers in these countries.

We face risks associated with our expansion into new markets outside of the current jurisdictions where we conduct business.

We plan in the future to expand our operations and business into jurisdictions outside of the jurisdictions where we currently carry on business. There can be no assurance that any market for our products will develop in any such foreign jurisdiction. We may face new or unexpected risks or significantly increase our exposure to one or more existing risk factors, including economic instability, new competition, changes in laws and regulations, including the possibility that we could be in violation of these laws and regulations as a result of such changes, and the effects of competition. These factors may limit our capability to successfully expand our operations in, or export our products to, to such jurisdictions.

We may be unable to sustain our revenue growth and development, and may be forced to adjust our operations accordingly.

Our revenue has grown in recent years. Our ability to sustain this growth will depend on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to, the availability of sufficient capital on suitable terms, changes in laws and regulations respecting the production and distribution of cannabis products, competition from other Licensed Producers, the size of the illicit market, the size of the Canadian adult-use market, and our ability to produce sufficient volumes of our cannabis-based products to meet demand. Regulatory changes, particularly in the primary jurisdictions where we operate, may continue to attract new market entrants and could dilute our potential opportunity and early-mover advantage. In addition, we are subject to a variety of business risks generally associated with developing companies. Future development and expansion could place significant strain on our management personnel and likely will require us to recruit additional management personnel, and there is no assurance that we will be able to do so.

As part of the integration of Tilray and Aphria, we implemented certain employee lay-offs and facility closures. We may take additional cost-control measures in the future that may impact our revenue growth and development, and could result in material charges and other impairment charges in our statement of operations.   In addition, please see Risk Factor “Risks related to the Arrangement”.

Failure to comply with anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing laws could disrupt our operations and involve significant costs.

We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States, Canada and elsewhere that prohibit money laundering, including the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (Canada) and the Money Laundering Control Act (United States), as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the United States, Canada or any other jurisdiction in which we have business operations or to which we export. Although we believe that none of our activities implicate any applicable money laundering statutes, in the event that any of our business activities, any dividends or distributions therefrom, or any profits or revenue accruing thereby are found to be in violation of money laundering statutes, such transactions may be viewed as proceeds of crime under one or more of the statutes described above or any other applicable legislation, and any persons, including such United States-based investors, found to be aiding and abetting us in such violations could be subject to liability. Any violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our operations, involve significant management distraction and involve significant costs and expenses, including legal fees. We could also suffer severe penalties, including criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other remedial measures.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery laws of Canada, the United States and the other countries in which we conduct business, could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (Canada) and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (United States), which generally prohibit companies and their employees from engaging in bribery, kickbacks or

 

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making other prohibited payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business.  Such legislation requires companies and their subsidiaries (including foreign subsidiaries) to maintain accurate books and records and internal controls. We are also subject to the anti-bribery laws of other countries in which we conduct, or will conduct, business that apply similar prohibitions. While we have developed policies and procedures that mandate compliance with these laws, employees or other agents may engage in unauthorized or prohibited conduct for which we may be held responsible. If our employees or other agents are found to have engaged in such practices, we could suffer severe penalties and other consequences that may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operations.

We are required to comply concurrently with all applicable laws in each jurisdiction where we operate or to which we export our products, and any changes to such laws could adversely impact our business.

Various federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations govern our business in the jurisdictions in which we operate or propose to operate, and in which we export or propose to export our products. Such laws and regulations include those relating to health and safety, conduct of operations and the production, management, transportation, storage and disposal of our products and of certain material used in our operations. In many cases, we must concurrently comply with complex federal, provincial, state and/or local laws in multiple jurisdictions. These laws change frequently and may be difficult to interpret and apply. Compliance with these laws and regulations requires the investment of significant financial and managerial resources, and a determination that we are not in compliance with any of these laws and regulations could harm our brand image and business. Moreover, it is impossible for us to predict the cost or effect of such laws, regulations or guidelines upon our future operations. Changes to these laws or regulations could negatively affect our competitive position within our industry and the markets in which we operate, and there is no assurance that various levels of government in the jurisdictions in which we operate will not pass legislation or regulation that adversely impacts our business.

Our strategic alliances and other third-party business relationships may not achieve the intended beneficial impact and expose us to risks.

We currently have, and may adjust the scope of, and may in the future enter into, strategic alliances with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. Our ability to complete further strategic alliances is dependent upon, and may be limited by, among other things, the availability of suitable candidates and capital. In addition, strategic alliances could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs, may not enhance our business or profitability and may involve risks that could adversely affect us, including the investment of significant amounts of management time that may be diverted from operations in order to pursue and complete such transactions or maintain such strategic alliances. We may become dependent on our strategic partners and actions by such partners could harm our business. Future strategic alliances could result in the incurrence of debt, impairment charges, costs and contingent liabilities, and there can be no assurance that future strategic alliances will achieve, or that our existing strategic alliances will continue to achieve, the expected benefits to our business or that we will be able to consummate future strategic alliances on satisfactory terms, or at all.

We may not be able to successfully identify and execute future acquisitions, dispositions or other equity transactions or to successfully manage the impacts of such transactions on our operations.

Material acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic transactions involve a number of risks, including: (i) the potential disruption of our ongoing business; (ii) the distraction of management away from the ongoing oversight of our existing business activities; (iii) incurring additional indebtedness; (iv) the anticipated benefits and cost savings of those transactions not being realized fully, or at all, or taking longer to realize than anticipated; (v) an increase in the scope and complexity of our operations; (vi) the loss or reduction of control over certain of our assets; and (vii) capital stock or cash to pay for the acquisition.. Material acquisitions and strategic transactions have been and continue to be material to our business strategy. There can be no assurance that we will find suitable opportunities for strategic transactions at acceptable prices, have sufficient capital resources to pursue such transactions, be successful in negotiating required agreements, or successfully close transactions after signing such agreements. There is no guarantee that any acquisitions will be accretive, or that past or future acquisitions will not result in additional impairments or write downs.

 

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The existence of one or more material liabilities of an acquired company that are unknown to us at the time of acquisition could result in our incurring those liabilities. A strategic transaction may result in a significant change in the nature of our business, operations and strategy, and we may encounter unforeseen obstacles or costs in implementing a strategic transaction or integrating any acquired business into our operations.

We are subject to risks inherent in an agricultural business, including the risk of crop failure.

We grow cannabis, which is an agricultural process. As such, our business is subject to the risks inherent in the agricultural business, including risks of crop failure presented by weather, insects, plant diseases and similar agricultural risks. Although we primarily grow our products indoors under climate-controlled conditions, we also have certain outdoor cultivation capacity and there can be no assurance that natural elements, such as insects and plant diseases, will not interrupt our production activities or have an adverse effect on our business.

We depend on significant customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. If we fail to retain or expand our customer relationships or significant customers reduce their purchases, our revenue could decline significantly.

We derive a significant portion of revenue from the supply contracts we have with 12 Canadian provinces and territories for adult-use cannabis products. There are many factors which could impact our contractual agreements with the provinces and territories, including but not limited to availability of supply, product selection and the popularity of our products with retail customers. If our supply agreements with certain Canadian provinces and territories are amended, terminated or otherwise altered, our sales and results of operations could be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, not all of our supply contracts with the Canadian provinces and territories contain purchase commitments or otherwise obligate the provincial or territorial wholesaler to buy a minimum or fixed volume of cannabis products from us. The amount of cannabis that the provincial or territorial wholesalers may purchase under the supply contracts may therefore vary from what we expect or planned for. As a result, our revenues could fluctuate materially in the future and could be materially and disproportionately impacted by the purchasing decisions of the provincial or territorial wholesalers. In the future, these customers may decide to purchase less product from us than they have in the past, may alter purchasing patterns or return inventory, or may decide not to continue to purchase our products, any of which could cause our revenue to decline materially and materially harm our financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to diversify our customer base, we will continue to be susceptible to risks associated with customer concentration.

We may be unable to attract or retain key personnel, and we may be unable to attract, develop and retain additional employees required for our development and future success.

Our success is largely dependent on the performance of our management team and certain employees and our continuing ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and skilled employees. Qualified individuals are in high demand, and we may incur significant costs to attract and retain them. The loss of the services of any key personnel, or an inability to attract other suitably qualified persons when needed, could prevent us from executing on our business plan and strategy, and we may be unable to find adequate replacements on a timely basis, or at all.

Further, officers, directors, and certain key personnel at each of our facilities that are licensed by Health Canada are subject to the requirement to obtain and maintain a security clearance from Health Canada under the CR. Moreover, under the CR, an individual with security clearance must be physically present on site when other individuals are conducting activities with cannabis. Under the CR, a security clearance is valid for a limited time and must be renewed before the expiry of a current security clearance. There is no assurance that any of our existing personnel who presently or may in the future require a security clearance will be able to obtain or renew such clearances or that new personnel who require a security clearance will be able to obtain one. A failure by an individual in a key operational position to maintain or renew his or her security clearance could result in a reduction or complete suspension of our operations. In addition, if an individual in a key operational position leaves us, and we are unable to find a suitable replacement who is able to obtain a security clearance required by the CR in a timely manner, or at all, we may not be able to conduct our operations at planned production volume levels or at all.

 

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The CR also requires us to designate a qualified individual in charge who is responsible for supervising activities relating to the production of study drugs for clinical trials, which individual must meet certain educational and security clearance requirements. If our current designated qualified person in charge fails to maintain their security clearance, or leaves us and we are unable to find a suitable replacement who meets these requirements, we may no longer be able to continue our clinical trial activities.

Increased labor costs, potential organization of our workforce, employee strikes, and other labor-related disruption may adversely affect our operations.

Outside Portugal, none of our employees are represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement. In Portugal, none of our employees are represented by a labor union or subject to any workforce-initiated labor agreement. As with other companies carrying on business in Portugal, we are subject to a government-mandated collective bargaining agreement, which grants employees nominal additional benefits beyond those required by the local labor code. We cannot assure that our labor costs going forward will remain competitive based on various factors, such as: (i) our workforce may organize in the future and labor agreements may be put in place that have significantly higher labor rates and company obligations; (ii) our competitors may maintain significantly lower labor costs, thereby reducing or eliminating our comparative advantages vis-à-vis one or more of our competitors or the larger industry; and (iii) our labor costs may increase in connection with our growth.

Significant interruptions in our access to certain supply chains for key inputs such as raw materials, supplies, electricity, water and other utilities may impair our operations.

Our business is dependent on a number of key inputs and their related costs (certain of which are sourced in other countries and on different continents), including raw materials, supplies and equipment related to our operations, as well as electricity, water and other utilities. We operate global manufacturing facilities, and have dispersed suppliers and customers. Governments may regulate or restrict the flow of labor or products, and the Company's operations, suppliers, customers and distribution channels could be severely impacted. While we have not experienced any material supply chain disruptions, any significant future governmental-mandated or market-related interruption, price increase or negative change in the availability or economics of the supply chain for key inputs and, in particular, rising or volatile energy costs could curtail or preclude our ability to continue production. In addition, our operations would be significantly affected by a prolonged power outage.

Our ability to compete is dependent on us having access, at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner, to skilled labor, equipment, parts and components. No assurances can be given that we will be successful in maintaining our required supply of labor, equipment, parts and components. See also Risk Factor “Risks related to COVID-19”.

We may require third party supply of quality cannabis flower, which may adversely affect our costs and subject us to unreliable supply chains or product quality.

Our business is highly dependent on the production and sale of acceptable and certifiable cannabis flower. Our operations may not produce sufficient volumes of cannabis flower or particular cultivars (commonly referred to as “strains”) to meet consumer demand. It is also possible that our cannabis flower production fails to meet our strict internal quality standards or external regulation specifications. This may require us to contract with third parties to purchase cannabis flower. There is no guarantee we will be able to source cannabis flower at attractive prices or that any third party-sourced product will meet our quality standards and all regulatory requirements. If we are unable to source sufficient cannabis flower for any of these reasons, our sales goals may not be achieved or our costs may increase, or both may occur. An increasing reliance on third party cannabis flower supply could materially impact our business reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

Fluctuations in cannabinoid prices relative to contracted prices with third party suppliers could negatively impact our earnings.

A portion of our results of operations and financial condition, as well as the selling prices for our products, are dependent upon cannabinoid supply contracts. Production and pricing of cannabinoids are determined by constantly changing market forces of supply and demand over which we have limited or no control. The market for cannabis

 

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biomass is particularly volatile compared to other commoditized markets due to the relatively nascent maturity of the industry in which we operate. The lack of centralized data and large variations in product quality make it difficult to establish a “spot price” for cannabinoids and develop an effective price hedging strategy. Accordingly, supply contracts with any term may prove to be costly in the future to the extent cannabinoid prices decrease dramatically or at a faster rate than anticipated.

Our failure to successfully negotiate supply contracts that address such market vagaries could result in us being contractually obligated to purchase products, some of which may be priced above then-current market prices, or interruption of the supply of inputs for the manufacturing of our products, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and prospects.

We face risks associated with the transportation of our products to consumers in a safe and efficient manner.

We depend on fast, cost-effective, and efficient courier services to distribute our products to both wholesale and retail customers. Any prolonged disruption of third-party transportation services could have a material adverse effect on our sales volumes or satisfaction with our services. Rising costs associated with third-party transportation services used by us to ship our products may also adversely impact our profitability, and more generally our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The security of our products during transportation to and from our facilities is of the utmost concern. A breach of security during transport or delivery could result in the loss of high-value product and forfeiture of import and export approvals, since such approvals are shipment specific. Any failure to take steps necessary to ensure the safekeeping of our cannabis products could also have an impact on our ability to continue supplying provinces and territories, to continue operating under our existing licenses, to renew or receive amendments to our existing licenses or to obtain new licenses.

Our products may be subject to recalls for a variety of reasons, which could require us to expend significant management and capital resources.

Manufacturers and distributors of cannabis, hemp and beverage alcohol products are sometimes subject to the recall or return of their products for a variety of reasons, including product defects, such as contamination, adulteration, unintended harmful side effects or interactions with other substances, packaging safety, and inadequate or inaccurate labeling disclosure. Although we have detailed procedures in place for testing finished products, there can be no assurance that any quality, potency or contamination problems will be detected in time to avoid unforeseen product recalls, regulatory action or lawsuits, whether frivolous or otherwise. If any of the products produced by us are recalled due to an alleged product defect or for any other reason, we could be required to incur the unexpected expense of the recall and any legal proceedings that might arise in connection with the recall. As a result of any such recall, we may lose a significant amount of sales and may not be able to replace those sales at an acceptable gross profit or at all. In addition, a product recall may require significant management attention or damage our reputation and goodwill or that of our products or brands.

Additionally, product recalls may lead to increased scrutiny of our operations by Health Canada or other regulatory agencies, requiring further management attention, increased compliance costs and potential legal fees, fines, penalties and other expenses. Any product recall affecting the cannabis industry more broadly, whether or not involving us, could also lead consumers to lose confidence in the safety and security of cannabis products generally, including products sold by us.

We may be subject to product liability claims or regulatory action. This risk is exacerbated by the fact that cannabis use may increase the risk of serious adverse side effects.

As a manufacturer and distributor of products which are ingested by humans, we face the risk of exposure to product liability claims, regulatory action and litigation if our products are alleged to have caused loss or injury. We may be subject to these types of claims due to allegations that our products caused or contributed to injury or illness, failed to include adequate instructions for use or failed to include adequate warnings concerning possible side effects or interactions with other substances. This risk is exacerbated by the fact that cannabis use may increase the risk of

 

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developing schizophrenia and other psychoses, symptoms for individuals with bipolar disorder, and other side effects. Furthermore, we are now offering an expanded assortment of form factors, some of which may have additional adverse side effects, such as vaping products. See also Risk Factor “Our vape business is subject to uncertainty in the evolving vape market due to negative public sentiment and regulatory scrutiny.  Previously unknown adverse reactions resulting from human consumption of cannabis or beverage alcohol products alone or in combination with other medications or substances could also occur.

In addition, the manufacture and sale of our products, like the manufacture and sale of any ingested product, involves a risk of injury to consumers due to tampering by unauthorized third parties or product contamination. We have in the past recalled, and may again in the future have to recall, certain products as a result of potential contamination and quality assurance concerns. A product liability claim or regulatory action against us could result in increased costs and could adversely affect our reputation and goodwill with our customers and consumers generally. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain product liability insurance on acceptable terms or with adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Such insurance is expensive and may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all. The inability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage on reasonable terms or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims could result in us becoming subject to significant liabilities that are uninsured and adversely affect our commercial arrangements with third parties.

We rely on third-party distributors to distribute our products, and those distributors may not perform their obligations.

We rely on third-party distributors, including pharmaceutical distributors, courier services, and government agencies, and may in the future rely on other third parties, to distribute our products. If these distributors do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, if there is a delay or interruption in the distribution of our products, or if these third parties damage our products, it could negatively impact our revenue from product sales. Any damage to our products, such as product spoilage, could expose us to potential product liability, damage our reputation and the reputation of our brands or otherwise harm our business.

We, or the cannabis industry more generally, may receive unfavorable publicity or become subject to negative consumer or investor perception.

We believe that the cannabis industry is highly dependent upon positive consumer and investor perception regarding the benefits, safety, efficacy and quality of the cannabis distributed to consumers. The perception of the cannabis industry and cannabis products, currently and in the future, may be significantly influenced by scientific research or findings, regulatory investigations, litigation, political statements, media attention and other publicity (whether or not accurate or with merit) both in Canada and in other countries relating to the consumption of cannabis products, including unexpected safety or efficacy concerns arising with respect to cannabis products or the activities of industry participants. There can be no assurance that future scientific research, findings, regulatory proceedings, litigation, media attention or other research findings or publicity will be favorable to the cannabis market or any particular cannabis product or will be consistent with earlier publicity. Adverse scientific research reports, findings and regulatory proceedings that are, or litigation, media attention or other publicity that is, perceived as less favorable than, or that questions, earlier research reports, findings or publicity (whether or not accurate or with merit) could result in a significant reduction in the demand for our products. Further, adverse publicity reports or other media attention regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of cannabis, or our products specifically, or associating the consumption of cannabis with illness or other negative effects or events, could adversely affect us. This adverse publicity could arise even if the adverse effects associated with cannabis products resulted from consumers’ failure to use such products legally, appropriately or as directed.

Certain events or developments in the cannabis industry more generally may impact our reputation.

Damage to our reputation can result from the actual or perceived occurrence of any number of events, including any negative publicity, whether true or not. As a producer and distributor of cannabis, which is a controlled substance in Canada that has previously been commonly associated with various other narcotics, violence and criminal activities, there is a risk that our business might attract negative publicity. There is also a risk that the actions of other Licensed Producers or of other companies and service providers in the cannabis industry may negatively affect the reputation of the industry as a whole and thereby negatively impact our reputation. The increased usage of social media and other

 

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web-based tools used to generate, publish and discuss user-generated content and to connect with other users has made it increasingly easier for individuals and groups to communicate and share negative opinions and views in regards to our activities and the cannabis industry in general, whether true or not.  We do not ultimately have direct control over how we or the cannabis industry is perceived by others. Reputational issues may result in decreased investor confidence, increased challenges in developing and maintaining community relations and present an impediment to our overall ability to advance our business strategy and realize on our growth prospects. This could also impact our ability to attract and/or maintain business partners that are not primarily engaged in the cannabis business, such as major food retailers.

Failure to comply with safety, health and environmental regulations applicable to our operations and industry may expose us to liability and impact operations.

Safety, health and environmental laws and regulations affect nearly all aspects of our operations, including product development, working conditions, waste disposal, emission controls, the maintenance of air and water quality standards and land reclamation, and, with respect to environmental laws and regulations, impose limitations on the generation, transportation, storage and disposal of solid and hazardous waste. Compliance with GMP requires satisfying additional standards for the conduct of our operations and subjects us to ongoing compliance inspections in respect of these standards in connection with our GMP certified facilities. Compliance with safety, health and environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures, and failure to comply with such safety, health and environmental laws and regulations may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the temporary or permanent suspension of operations, the imposition of clean-up costs resulting from contaminated properties, the imposition of damages and the loss of or refusal of governmental authorities to issue permits or licenses to us or to certify our compliance with GMP standards. Exposure to these liabilities may arise in connection with our existing operations, our historical operations and operations that we may undertake in the future. We could also be held liable for worker exposure to hazardous substances and for accidents causing injury or death. There can be no assurance that we will at all times be in compliance with all safety, health and environmental laws and regulations notwithstanding our attempts to comply with such laws and regulations.

Changes in applicable safety, health and environmental standards may impose stricter standards and enforcement, increased fines and penalties for non-compliance, more stringent environmental assessments of proposed projects and a heightened degree of responsibility for companies and their officers, directors and employees. We are not able to determine the specific impact that future changes in safety, health and environmental laws and regulations may have on our industry, operations and/or activities and our resulting financial position; however, we anticipate that capital expenditures and operating expenses will increase in the future as a result of the implementation of new and increasingly stringent safety, health and environmental laws and regulations. Further changes in safety, health and environmental laws and regulations, new information on existing safety, health and environmental conditions or other events, including legal proceedings based upon such conditions or an inability to obtain necessary permits in relation thereto, may require increased compliance expenditures by us.

We may become subject to liability and harm arising from fraudulent or illegal activity by our employees, contractors, consultants and others.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, service providers and licensors may engage in fraudulent or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional undertakings of unauthorized activities, or reckless or negligent undertakings of authorized activities, in each case on our behalf or in our service that violate: (i) government regulations, including Health Canada regulations; (ii) manufacturing standards; (iii) healthcare laws and regulations; (iv) privacy laws and regulations; (v) laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data; (vi) United States federal laws banning the possession, sale or importation of cannabis into the United States and prohibiting the financing of activities outside the United States that are unlawful under Canadian or other foreign laws or (vii) the terms of our agreements with insurers. For example, we could be exposed to class action and other litigation, increased Health Canada inspections and related sanctions, the loss of current GMP compliance certifications or the inability to obtain future GMP compliance certifications, lost sales and revenue or reputational damage as a result of prohibited activities that are undertaken in the growing or production process of our products without our knowledge or permission and contrary to our internal policies, procedures and operating requirements.

 

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We cannot always identify and prevent misconduct by our employees and other third parties, including service providers and licensors, and the precautions taken by us to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown, unanticipated or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from such misconduct. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal or administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines and contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings or curtailment of our operations.

We may experience breaches of security at our facilities, which could result in product loss and liability.

Because of the nature of our products and the limited legal channels for distribution, as well as the concentration of inventory in our facilities, we are subject to the risk of theft of our products and other security breaches. A security breach at any one of our facilities could result in a significant loss of available products, expose us to additional liability under applicable regulations and to potentially costly litigation or increase expenses relating to the resolution and future prevention of similar thefts, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to risks related to our information technology systems, including service interruption, cyber-attacks and misappropriation of data, which could disrupt operations and may result in financial losses and reputational damage.

We have entered into agreements with third parties for hardware, software, telecommunications and other information technology, or IT, services in connection with our operations. Our operations depend, in part, on how well we and our vendors protect networks, equipment, IT systems and software against damage from a number of threats, including, but not limited to, cable cuts, damage to physical plants, natural disasters, intentional damage and destruction, fire, power loss, hacking, computer viruses, vandalism, theft, malware, ransomware and phishing attacks. We are increasingly reliant on Cloud-based systems for economies of scale and our mobile workforce, which could result in increased attack vectors or other significant disruptions to our work processes. Any of these and other events could result in IT system failures, delays or increases in capital expenses. Our operations also depend on the timely maintenance, upgrade and replacement of networks, equipment and IT systems and software, as well as preemptive expenses to mitigate the risks of failures. The failure of IT systems or a component of IT systems could, depending on the nature of any such failure, adversely impact our reputation and results of operations.

There are a number of laws protecting the confidentiality of personal information and patient health information, and restricting the use and disclosure of that protected information. In particular, the privacy rules under the Personal Information Protection and Electronics Documents Act (Canada), or PIPEDA, the European Unions’ General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, and similar laws in other jurisdictions, protect personal information, including medical records of individuals. We collect and store personal information about our employees and customers and are responsible for protecting that information from privacy breaches. A privacy breach may occur through a procedural or process failure, an IT malfunction or deliberate unauthorized intrusions. Theft of data for competitive purposes, particularly patient lists and preferences, is an ongoing risk whether perpetrated through employee collusion or negligence or through deliberate cyber-attack. Moreover, if we are found to be in violation of the privacy or security rules under PIPEDA or other laws protecting the confidentiality of patient health information, including as a result of data theft and privacy breaches, we could be subject to sanction, litigation and civil or criminal penalties, which could increase our liabilities and harm our reputation.

As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. While we have implemented security resources to protect our data security and information technology systems, such measures may not prevent such events. Significant disruption to our information technology system or breaches of data security could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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We may be unable to expand our operations quickly enough to meet demand or successfully manage our operations beyond their current scale.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to (i) manage our expanding operations, including any acquisitions, effectively, (ii) sustain or accelerate our growth or that such growth, if achieved, will result in profitable operations, (iii) attract and retain sufficient management personnel necessary for continued growth or (iv) successfully make strategic investments or acquisitions. This challenge has been compounded with the launch of multiple new form factors as a result of Cannabis 2.0. See also Risk Factor “We may not be able to successfully develop new products or commercialize such products.”

In addition, any future expansion will be subject to a number of up-front expenses, including those associated with obtaining regulatory approvals, as well as additional ongoing expenses, including those associated with infrastructure, staff and regulatory compliance. The failure of our operating infrastructure to support such expansion could result in operational failures and regulatory fines or sanctions.

Demand for cannabis-based products is dependent on a number of social, political and economic factors that are beyond our control. There is no assurance that an increase in existing demand will occur, that we will benefit from any such demand increase or that our business will remain profitable even in the event of such an increase in demand. If we are unable to achieve or sustain profitability, the market price of our stock could be negatively affected.

The cannabis industry continues to face significant funding challenges, and we may not be able to secure adequate or reliable sources of funding, which may impact our operations and potential expansion.

The continued development of our business will require significant additional financing, and there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain the financing necessary to achieve our business objectives. Our ability to obtain additional financing will depend on investor demand, our performance and reputation, market conditions, and other factors. Our inability to raise such capital could result in the delay or indefinite postponement of our current business objectives or our inability to continue to operate our business. There can be no assurance that additional capital or other types of equity or debt financing will be available if needed or that, if available, the terms of such financing will be favorable to us.

In addition, from time to time, we may enter into transactions to acquire assets or the capital stock or other equity interests of other entities. Our continued growth may be financed, wholly or partially, with debt, which may increase our debt levels above industry standards.

Our existing and future debt agreements may contain covenant restrictions that limit our ability to operate our business and pursue beneficial transactions.

Our existing debt agreements and future debt agreements may contain, covenant restrictions that limit our ability to operate our busines, including restrictions on our ability to invest in our existing facilities, incur additional debt or issue guarantees, create additional liens, repurchase stock or make other restricted payments. As a result of these covenants, our ability to respond to changes in business and economic conditions and engage in beneficial transactions, including to obtain additional financing and pursue business opportunities, may be restricted. Furthermore, our failure to comply with our debt covenants could result in a default under our debt agreements, which could permit the holders to accelerate our obligation to repay the debt and to enforce security over our assets. If any of our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds available to repay it or be able to obtain new financing to refinance the debt.

Servicing our debt will require a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.

Our substantial consolidated indebtedness (refer to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K) may increase our vulnerability to any generally adverse economic and industry conditions. We and our subsidiaries may, subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, incur additional debt, secure existing or future debt or recapitalize our debt. Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our current and future indebtedness, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business has not generated

 

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positive cash flow from operations. If this continues in the future, we may not have sufficient cash flows to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our current and future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

Management may not be able to successfully establish and maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting.

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. As defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d(f) under the Exchange Act, internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”). Due to the work around integration and modification to internal control over financial reporting and other policies and procedures, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Prior to the closing of the Arrangement, and as previously disclosed in legacy Tilray’s Annual 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on February 19, 2021, the former Tilray management team identified material weaknesses in components of internal controls as part of its assessment of the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. The former Tilray management team subsequently undertook to implement remediation measures to address these material weaknesses in internal controls, as described in Tilray’s Annual 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and existing Tilray management plan to continue to implement additional remediation measures going forward.

It is not expected that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting will prevent all error or fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and implemented, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Due to inherent limitations, our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all misstatements. The inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple errors or mistakes. Controls can also be circumvented by individual acts of certain persons, by collusion of two or more people or by management override of the controls. Due to the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected in a timely manner or at all. We cannot guarantee that we will not have a material weakness in our internal controls in the future. If we experience any material weakness in our internal controls in the future, our financial statements may contain misstatements and we could be required to restate our financial statements.

Conflicts of interest may arise between us and our directors and officers as a result of other business activities undertaken by such individuals.

We may be subject to various potential conflicts of interest because some of our directors and executive officers may be engaged in a range of business activities. In addition, our directors and executive officers are permitted under their applicable agreements with us to devote time to their outside business interests, so long as such activities do not materially or adversely interfere with their duties to us and subject to any contractual provisions restricting such activities. These business interests could require the investment of significant time and attention by our executive officers and directors. In some cases, our executive officers and directors, may have fiduciary obligations associated with business interests that interfere with their ability to devote time to our business and affairs, which could adversely affect our operations. Please refer to the section titled “Transactions with Related Persons” in Amendment No. 1 to our Annual 10-K, filed on Form 10-K/A with the SEC on April 28, 2021, for further information.

 

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Third parties with whom we do business may perceive themselves as being exposed to reputational risk as a result of their relationship with us.

The parties with whom we do business, or would like to do business, may perceive that they are exposed to reputational risk as a result of our business activities relating to cannabis, which could hinder our ability to establish or maintain business relationships. These perceptions relating to the cannabis industry may interfere with our relationship with service providers, particularly in the financial services industry in the United States and jurisdictions where cannabis is not legal.

Because a significant portion of our sales are generated in Canada and other countries outside the United States, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could harm our results of operations.

The reporting currency for our financial statements is the United States dollar. We derive a significant portion of our revenue and incur a significant portion of our operating costs in Canada and Europe, as well as other countries outside the United States, including Australia. As a result, changes in the exchange rate in these jurisdictions relative to the United States dollar, may have a significant, and potentially adverse, effect on our results of operations. Our primary risk of loss regarding foreign currency exchange rate risk is caused by fluctuations in the exchange rates between the United States dollar against the Canadian dollar and the Euro, although as we expand internationally, we will be subject to additional foreign currency exchange risks. Because we recognize revenue in Canada in Canadian dollars and revenue in Europe in Euros, if either or both of these currencies weaken against the United States dollar it would have a negative impact on our Canadian and/or European operating results upon the translation of those results into United States dollars for the purposes of consolidation. In addition, a weakening of these foreign currencies against the United States dollar would make it more difficult for us to meet our obligations under the convertible securities we have issued. We have not historically engaged in hedging transactions and do not currently contemplate engaging in hedging transactions to mitigate foreign exchange risks. As we continue to recognize gains and losses in foreign currency transactions, depending upon changes in future currency rates, such gains or losses could have a significant, and potentially adverse, effect on our results of operations.

We may have exposure to greater than anticipated tax liabilities, which could harm our business.

Our income tax obligations are based on our corporate operating structure and third-party and intercompany arrangements, including the manner in which we develop, value and use our intellectual property and the valuations of our intercompany transactions. The tax laws applicable to our international business activities, including the laws of the United States, Canada and other jurisdictions, are subject to change and uncertain interpretation. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology, intercompany arrangements, or transfer pricing, all of which could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and the amount of taxes that we pay and harm our business. Taxing authorities may also determine that the manner in which we operate our business is not consistent with how we report our income, which could increase our effective tax rate and the amount of taxes that we pay and could seriously harm our business. In addition, our future income taxes could fluctuate because of earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities or by changes in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles.

We are subject to regular review and audit by federal, state, provincial and local tax authorities. Any adverse outcome from a review or audit could seriously harm our business. In addition, determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment by management, and there are many transactions where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe that the amounts recorded in our financial statements are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome relating to such amounts may differ for such period or periods and may seriously harm our business. Furthermore, due to shifting economic and political conditions, tax policies, laws, or rates in various jurisdictions, we may be subject to significant changes in ways that impair our financial results. Our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected by additional taxes imposed on us prospectively or retroactively or additional taxes or penalties resulting from the failure to comply with any collection obligations or failure to provide information for tax reporting purposes to various government agencies.

 

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We may not be able to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards which could result in greater than anticipated tax liabilities. 

We have accumulated net operating loss carryforwards in the United States, Canada and other jurisdictions.  Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards is dependent upon our ability to generate taxable income in future periods. In addition, these net operating loss carryforwards could expire unused or be subject to limitations which impact our ability to offset future income tax liabilities. U.S. federal net operating losses incurred in 2018 and in future years may be carried forward indefinitely.  However, our Canadian net operating loss carry-forwards begin to expire in 2028, and limited carryforward periods also exist in other jurisdictions. As a result, we may not be able realize the full benefit of our net operating loss carryforwards in Canada and other jurisdictions, which could result in increased future tax liability to us.  Further, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards in the United States and other jurisdictions could be limited from ownership changes in the current and/or prior periods.

Risks Related to our Intellectual Property

We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property.

As long as cannabis remains illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA, the benefit of certain federal laws and protections that may be available to most businesses, such as federal trademark and patent protection, may not be available to us. As a result, our intellectual property may not be adequately or sufficiently protected against the use or misappropriation by third parties under such U.S. laws. In addition, since the regulatory framework of the cannabis industry is in a state of flux, we can provide no assurance that we will obtain protection for our intellectual property, whether on a federal, state or local level.

We may be subject to risks related to the protection of our intellectual property rights and allegations that we are in violation of intellectual property rights of third parties.

The ownership, licensing and protection of trademarks, patents and intellectual property rights are significant to the success of our business. Unauthorized parties may attempt to replicate or otherwise obtain and use our products and technology. Policing and enforcing the unauthorized use of our current or future trademarks, patents or other intellectual property rights now or in the future could be difficult, expensive, time consuming and unpredictable. Identifying the unauthorized use of intellectual property rights is difficult as we may be unable to effectively monitor and evaluate the products being distributed by our competitors, including unlicensed dispensaries and black-market participants, and the processes used to produce such products. Moreover, we may not be successful in any infringement proceeding.

In addition, other parties may claim that our products, or those that we license from others, infringe on their proprietary or patent protected rights. Such claims, whether or not meritorious, may result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources and legal fees, result in injunctions or temporary restraining orders or require the payment of damages. As well, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties who allege that we have infringed on their lawful rights. Such licenses may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, we may not be able to obtain or utilize on terms that are favorable to us, or at all, licenses or other rights with respect to intellectual property that we do not own.

We also rely on certain trade secrets, technical know-how and proprietary information that are not protected by patents to maintain our competitive position. Our trade secrets, technical know-how and proprietary information, which are not protected by patents, may become known to or be independently developed by competitors, which could adversely affect us.

We license certain intellectual property rights from third-party licensors, and the failure of the licensor to properly maintain or enforce their intellectual property rights could have an adverse effect on us.

We are party to a number of licenses that give us rights to use third-party intellectual property that is useful to our business. Our success will depend, in part, on the ability of the licensor to maintain and enforce its licensed intellectual property, in particular, those intellectual property rights to which we have secured exclusive rights.

 

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Without protection for the intellectual property we have licensed, other companies might be able to offer substantially similar products for sale or utilize substantially similar processes, which could have an adverse effect on us.

Any of our licensors may allege that we have breached our license agreement, whether with or without merit, and accordingly seek to terminate our license. If successful, this could result in our loss of the right to use the licensed intellectual property, which could adversely affect our ability to commercialize certain products or services and have a material adverse effect on us.

We may not realize the full benefit of the clinical trials or studies that we participate in if we are unable to secure ownership or the exclusive right to use the resulting intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms.

Although we have participated in several clinical trials, we are not the sponsor of many of these trials and, as such, do not have full control over the design, conduct and terms of the trials. In some cases, for instance, we are only the provider of a cannabis study drug for a trial that is designed and initiated by an independent investigator within an academic institution. In such cases, we are often not able to acquire rights to all the intellectual property generated by the trials. Although the terms of all clinical trial agreements entered into by us provide us with, at a minimum, ownership of intellectual property relating directly to the study drug being trialed (e.g. intellectual property relating to use of the study drug), ownership of intellectual property that does not relate directly to the study drug is often retained by the institution. As such, we are vulnerable to any dispute among the investigator, the institution and us with respect to classification and therefore ownership of any particular piece of intellectual property generated during the trial. Such a dispute may affect our ability to make full use of intellectual property generated by a clinical trial.

Where intellectual property generated by a trial is owned by the institution, we are often granted a right of first negotiation to obtain an exclusive license to such intellectual property. If we exercise such a right, there is a risk that the parties will fail to come to an agreement on the license, in which case such intellectual property may be licensed to other parties or commercialized by the institution.

We may not realize the full benefit of third-party licenses if the licensed material has less market appeal than expected or restrictions on packaging and marketing hinder our ability to realize the value.

An integral part of our Canadian adult-use cannabis business strategy involves obtaining territorially exclusive licenses to produce products using various brands and images. As a licensee of brand-based properties, we have no assurance that a particular brand or property will translate into a successful adult-use cannabis product. Additionally, a successful brand may not continue to be successful or maintain a high level of sales. As well, the popularity of licensed properties may not result in popular products or the success of the properties with the public. Promotion, packaging and labelling of adult-use cannabis is strictly regulated. These restrictions may further hinder our ability to benefit from our licenses. Acquiring or renewing licenses may require the payment of minimum guaranteed royalties that we consider to be too high to be profitable, which may result in losing current licenses or opportunities for potential new licenses. If we are unable to acquire or maintain successful licenses on advantageous terms, or to derive sufficient revenue from sales of licensed products, the profitability and success of our adult-use cannabis business may be adversely impacted.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities

The price of our common stock in public markets has experienced and may continue to experience severe volatility and fluctuations.

The market price for our common stock, and the market price of stock of other companies operating in the cannabis industry, has been extremely volatile. For example, between January 1, 2021 and March 31, 2021, the trading price of our common stock ranged between a low sales price of $8.26 and a high sales price of $67 and included single day fluctuations as high as 100%. Additionally, during 2020, the trading price of our common stock ranged between a low sales price of $2.43 and a high sales price of $22.95. The market price of our common stock may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the following: (i) actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations; (ii) recommendations by securities research analysts; (iii) changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other issuers that investors deem comparable to us; (iv) the addition or departure of our executive officers or other key

 

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personnel; (v) the release or expiration of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our common stock; (vi) sales or perceived sales, or the expectation of future sales, of our common stock; (vii) significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors; (viii) news reports or social media relating to trends, concerns, technological or competitive developments, regulatory changes and other related issues in the cannabis industry or our target markets; and (ix) the increase in the number of retail investors and their participation in social media platforms targeted at speculative investing.

The volatility of our stock and the stockholder base may hinder or prevent us from engaging in beneficial corporate initiatives.

Our stockholder base is comprised of a large number of retail (or non-institutional) investors, which creates more volatility since stock changes hands frequently.  In accordance with our governing documents and applicable laws, there are a number of initiatives that require the approval of stockholders at the annual or a special meeting. To hold a valid meeting, a quorum comprised of stockholders representing one-third of the voting power of our outstanding shares of common stock is necessary. A record date is established to determine which stockholders are eligible to vote at the meeting, which record date must be 30 – 60 days prior to the meeting. Since our stocks change hands frequently, there can be a significant turnover of stockholders between the record date and the meeting date which makes it harder to get stockholders to vote. While we make every effort to engage retail investors, such efforts can be expensive and the frequent turnover creates logistical issues. Further retail investors tend to be less likely to vote in comparison to institutional investors. Failure to secure sufficient votes or to achieve the minimum quorum needed for a meeting to happen may impede our ability to move forward with initiatives that are intended to grow the business and create stockholder value or prevent us from engaging in such initiatives at all. If we find it necessary to delay or adjourn meetings or to seek approval again, it will be time consuming and we will incur additional costs. See also Risk Factor “The inability to increase the authorized capital stock could impede our ability to pursue our strategic objectives, provide equity incentives to engage key talent and negatively impact stockholder value”.

The terms of our outstanding warrants may limit our ability to raise additional equity capital or pursue acquisitions, which may impact funding of our ongoing operations and cause significant dilution to existing stockholders.

On March 13, 2020, we entered into an underwriting agreement with Canaccord Genuity LLC relating to the issuance and sale of shares of our common stock  a price to the public of $4.76 per share and included warrants to purchase additional common stock at a price of $4.7599 per warrant.  As of May 31, 2021, 6,209,000 warrants remain outstanding and do not expire until March 13, 2025. The warrants contain a price protection, or anti-dilution feature, pursuant to which, the exercise price of such warrants will be reduced to the consideration paid for, or the exercise price or conversion price of, as the case may be, any newly issued securities issued at a discount to the original warrant exercise price of $5.95 per share. Therefore, the exercise price of the warrants may end up being lower than $5.95 per share, which could result in incremental dilution to existing stockholders.

Additionally, so long as the warrants remain outstanding, we may only issue up to $20 million in aggregate gross proceeds under our at-the-market offering program at prices less than the exercise price of the warrants, and in no event more than $6 million per quarter at prices below the exercise price of the warrants, without triggering the warrant’s anti-dilution feature described in the paragraph immediately above. If our stock price were to remain below the warrant exercise price of $5.95 per share for an extended time, we may be forced to lower the warrant exercise price at unfavorable terms in order to fund our ongoing operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the securities or industry analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. In addition, if our operating results fail to meet the forecast of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

 

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We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the Convertible Secur