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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-38594

 

TILRAY, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

82-4310622

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

1100 Maughan Road

Nanaimo, BC

V9X IJ2

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (844) 845-7291

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class 2 Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

TLRY

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  YES NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).  YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  YES NO 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of the Registrant’s Class 2 Common Stock on The Nasdaq Stock Market on June 28, 2019, was approximately $1.03 billion.

As of March 2, 2020 there were 16,666,667 shares of the Registrant’s Class 1 Common Stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, and 87,390,113 shares of the Registrant’s Class 2 Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, issued and outstanding.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III incorporates certain information by reference from the definitive proxy statement to be filed by the registrant in connection with the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”). The Proxy Statement will be filed by the registrant with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the year ended December 31, 2019.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

17

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

45

Item 2.

Properties

45

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

45

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

46

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

47

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

49

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

50

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

75

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

F-1

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

76

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

76

Item 9B.

Other Information

81

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

82

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

82

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

82

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

82

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

82

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

83

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

86

 

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, “we,” “our,” “us,” “Tilray,” and “the Company” refer to Tilray, Inc. and, where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries. This report contains references to our trademarks and trade names and to trademarks and trade names belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this report may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

i


PART I

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Some of the information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or “forward -looking information” within the meaning of Canadian securities laws. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions or variations. Such forward-looking statements and forward-looking information are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements or forward-looking information. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other SEC and Canadian public filings. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and while we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements or forward-looking information as predictions of future events. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements or forward-looking information speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements or forward-looking information to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

Item 1. Business.

Our Vision

Our vision is to build the world’s most trusted and valued cannabis and hemp company.

We are pioneering the future of medical, wellness and adult-use cannabis and hemp research, cultivation, processing and distribution globally, and we are one of the leading suppliers of adult-use cannabis in Canada and a leading supplier of hemp products in North America.

Our Beliefs

Our founders started the Company with the belief that patients and consumers should have safe access and a reliable supply of quality-tested pure, precise and predictable cannabis products.

Our Company is anchored around three core beliefs:

Medical cannabis is a mainstream medicine consumed by mainstream patients — similarly, we believe adult-use cannabis and hemp products are mainstream products consumed by mainstream consumers;

We are witnessing a global paradigm shift with regard to cannabis and hemp, and because of this shift, the transformation of a multibillion dollar industry from a state of prohibition to a state of legalization; and

As this transformation occurs, trusted global brands, backed by multinational supply chains, will shape the future of our industry and earn the confidence of patients, consumers, healthcare practitioners and governments around the world.

 

1


Our Company

We have supplied high-quality medical cannabis products to tens of thousands of patients in fifteen countries spanning five continents across the world through our subsidiaries in Australia, Canada, Germany, Latin America and Portugal and through agreements with established pharmaceutical distributors. We cultivate medical and adult-use cannabis in Canada and medical cannabis in Europe.

We operate only in countries where cannabis or hemp-derived cannabinoids are legal, by which we mean the activities in those countries are permitted under all applicable federal and state or provincial and territory laws.

We have been an early leader in the development of the global medical cannabis market. We were one of the first companies to be licensed by Health Canada to cultivate and sell medical cannabis in Canada, and one of the first companies to become a licensed dealer of medical cannabis in Canada. These licenses allow us to produce and sell medical cannabis in Canada, to develop new and innovative cannabis products and to export medical cannabis products to other countries in accordance with applicable laws. The cannabis industry is expanding rapidly in Canada, with more than 280 current licenses, though only a few were licensed earlier than us. Our medical cannabis products have been made available or used in clinical trials in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Germany, Israel, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, Switzerland, United States, and United Kingdom. While there are other Licensed Producers operating in multiple countries, including some licensed in Canada, and other non-cannabis companies expanding into the cannabis market internationally, we were the first company to legally export medical cannabis from North America to Africa, Australia, Europe, Israel and Latin America, and we were among the first companies to be licensed to cultivate and process medical cannabis in two countries, Canada and Portugal. We have successfully recruited an international advisory board consisting of world-renowned policy leaders and business leaders, to advise on our global expansion and add to our growing network of experts in their specific field of expertise.

Our Company is led by a team of visionary entrepreneurs, experienced operators and cannabis industry experts as well as PhD scientists, horticulturists and extraction specialists who apply the latest scientific knowledge and technology to deliver quality-controlled, rigorously tested cannabis products on a large scale. We have made significant investments to establish Tilray as a scientifically rigorous cannabis brand, committed to quality and excellence. Recognizing the opportunity associated with growing and producing cannabis on a large scale, we have invested capital to develop innovative cultivation practices, proprietary product formulations and automated production processes. We have also invested in clinical trials and recruited a Medical Advisory Board comprised of highly accomplished researchers and physicians.  We were the first cannabis company with a North American production facility to be Good Manufacturing Practices, or GMP, certified in accordance with European Medicines Agency, or EMA, standards. An internationally recognized standard, GMP certification is the primary quality standard that pharmaceutical manufacturers must meet in their production and manufacturing processes.

We are committed to establishing a diverse team as we continue to grow. We are proud to have one of the first women-majority boards in the cannabis industry. Diversity is a priority for our company and we intend to seek out talented people from a variety of backgrounds to join our leadership team.

We believe our growth to date is a result of our global strategy, our multinational supply chain and distribution network and our methodical commitment to research, innovation, quality and operational excellence. We believe that recognized and trusted brands distributed through multinational supply chains will be best positioned to become global market leaders.  Our strategy is to build these brands by consistently producing high-quality, differentiated products on a large scale.

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Business Segments

We report our operating results in two segments: (i) Cannabis (licensed), and (ii) Hemp (unlicensed).  The business segments reflect how our operations are managed, how resources are allocated, how operating performance is evaluated by senior management and the structure of our internal financial reporting.  We report total revenue, inclusive of excise duties, in two reportable segments, by product category and product channel, as follows:

Revenue by product channel

 

 

Year Ended

 

% of

 

Year Ended

 

% of

 

Year Ended

 

% of

 

(in thousands of United States dollars)

December 31,

2019

 

Total

revenue

 

December 31,

2018

 

Total

revenue

 

December 31,

2017

 

Total

revenue

 

Cannabis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adult-use

$

55,763

 

 

33

%

$

3,521

 

 

8

%

$

 

 

 

Canada - medical

 

12,556

 

 

8

%

 

18,052

 

 

42

%

 

19,642

 

 

96

%

International - medical

 

13,378

 

 

8

%

 

2,912

 

 

7

%

 

896

 

 

4

%

Bulk

 

25,450

 

 

15

%

 

18,645

 

 

43

%

 

 

 

 

Total cannabis revenue

$

107,147

 

 

64

%

$

43,130

 

 

100

%

$

20,538

 

 

100

%

Hemp

 

59,832

 

 

36

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total revenue

$

166,979

 

 

100

%

$

43,130

 

 

100

%

$

20,538

 

 

100

%

 

Revenue by product category

 

 

Year Ended

 

% of

 

Year Ended

 

% of

 

Year Ended

 

% of

 

(in thousands of United States dollars)

December 31,

2019

 

Total

revenue

 

December 31,

2018

 

Total

revenue

 

December 31,

2017

 

Total

revenue

 

Dried cannabis

$

82,753

 

 

50

%

$

21,674

 

 

50

%

$

16,260

 

 

79

%

Cannabis extracts

 

24,139

 

 

14

%

 

21,179

 

 

49

%

 

3,965

 

 

19

%

Hemp products

 

59,832

 

 

36

%

 

 

 

0

%

 

 

 

0

%

Accessories and other

 

255

 

 

0

%

 

277

 

 

1

%

 

313

 

 

2

%

Total revenue

$

166,979

 

 

100

%

$

43,130

 

 

100

%

$

20,538

 

 

100

%

 

Revenue for the year December 31, 2019 included $13.1 million of excise duties (2018 - $1.2 million, 2017 – nil). Two customers accounted for 13% each of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019. One customer accounted for 24% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. No one customer accounted for greater than 10% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

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Cannabis

We are a leader in the legal licensed cannabis segment, which includes Canadian Adult-Use, Canadian Medical, International Medical as well as bulk sales.  We have a number of brands in these categories.

Hemp

We are a leader in the unlicensed hemp products segment, which includes hemp foods and cannabidiol (“CBD”) products.  Our hemp food products are available in 20 countries and our CBD products are currently available in certain states in the United States.

Our Opportunity

We are approaching our industry from a long-term, global perspective and see opportunities to:

Build global brands that lead, legitimize and define the future of cannabis and hemp. Historically, cannabis has been an unbranded product. As the legal cannabis and hemp industries emerge in more countries around the world, we see an opportunity to create a broad-based portfolio of differentiated brands brought to market in a professional manner, that appeal to a diverse set of patients and consumers. We believe that we have the ability to develop dominant global brands and that as we develop these brands, we will expand the addressable market for our products. We believe our business has the potential to disrupt the pharmaceutical, alcohol, tobacco and functional food and beverages industries because the emergence of the legal cannabis and hemp industries may result in a shift of discretionary income and/or a change in consumer preferences in favor of cannabis and hemp products versus other products. Recognizing the potential of this disruption, several companies in these sectors have already formed partnerships or made investments to gain exposure to the legal cannabis industry, including Sandoz AG, Anheuser-Busch InBev (“AB InBev”), Apotex Inc., Altria Group, Inc., Constellation Brands, Inc. and Imperial Brands PLC. In addition, several alcohol companies have noted in regulatory filings that legal cannabis could have an adverse impact on their business, including AB InBev, Boston Beer Company, and Molson Coors Brewing Company. We further believe that many patients rely on medical cannabis as a substitute to opioids and other narcotics, which has been validated by our annual patient study and peer-reviewed academic research which has demonstrated that the legalization of cannabis has coincided with a decline in the use of prescription drugs. Lastly, we believe that functional food and beverages, that is, products containing or enhanced with vitamins, caffeine, electrolytes, probiotics and other additives and ingredients, will see increased competition from products containing cannabinoids, such as CBD. For example, we believe that many consumers will choose cannabinoid-enhanced beverages in favor of sports drinks or energy drinks.

Invest in markets where cannabis and hemp products are federally legal or are expected to be federally legal. Our goal is to increase our total addressable market size as countries continue to legalize cannabis for medical access and adult-use access globally.  To date, 41 countries have formally legalized medical cannabis programs for either research or patient access and two countries, including Canada, have implemented adult-use access for cannabis.  The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 the “Farm Bill”), was passed into law in the United States during December 2018, which permits the cultivation of hemp and the production of hemp-derived CBD and other cannabinoids. Combined with the growing global acceptance of hemp and hemp-derived CBD products, we believe there is a significant market opportunity in hemp and hemp-derived CBD products globally. We expect to monitor, identify and selectively invest in compelling opportunities that will strengthen our leadership position as demonstrated by our acquisition of Manitoba Harvest in February 2019.

Develop innovative products and form factors that change the way the world consumes cannabis and hemp. We believe the future of the cannabis and hemp industries will primarily be in non-combustible products that will offer patients and consumers alternatives to smoking. We see an opportunity to partner with established pharmaceutical, food, beverage and consumer product companies to develop new non-combustible form factors that will appeal to consumers who are not interested in smoking cannabis, including our beverage research partnership with AB InBev. By developing new, non-combustible products, we believe we will expand our addressable market.

Expand the availability of pure, precise and predictable medical cannabis products for patients in need around the world. Since 2014, we have seen significant increases in demand from patients and governments for pharmaceutical-grade cannabis products. We are well-positioned to expand availability of these products to more patients in more countries as medical cannabis is increasingly recognized as a viable treatment option for patients suffering from a variety of diseases and conditions. Importantly, most European countries have required that all

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medical products sold be sourced from GMP-certified facilities. As such, GMP-certified producers, such as us, are well-positioned to establish market share in the European medical cannabis market. Outside of our Company, we believe there are very few GMP-certified Licensed Producers.

Foster mainstream acceptance of the therapeutic potential of medical cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines. We see an opportunity to significantly expand the global market for medical cannabis products by conducting clinical research into the safety and efficacy of medical cannabis for a diverse range of conditions. By generating clinical data demonstrating the safety and efficacy of medical cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines for various conditions, we see an opportunity to significantly expand and dominate the global medical cannabis market.

Our Strengths

We are a global pioneer with a multinational supply chain and distribution network.  We were the first cannabis producer to export medical cannabis from North America and legally import cannabis into the European Union, or the EU. We have licenses to cultivate cannabis in Canada and Portugal. Our products have been made available in fifteen countries spanning five continents, which we believe is more than any other Licensed Producer. To achieve our goal of becoming a global cannabis leader, we have signed agreements with established global industry leaders including:

In January 2018, we entered into a supply agreement with Shoppers Drug Mart Inc. (“Shoppers Drug Mart”), Canada’s largest pharmacy chain with more than 1,200 pharmacies.

In December 2018, we entered into a global framework agreement with Sandoz AG, a global leader in generic pharmaceuticals and biosimilars and part of the Novartis group, to increase availability of high quality medical cannabis products across the world. This was an evolution of the existing collaboration agreement with Sandoz Canada and under the framework agreement, Sandoz AG and Tilray will work together to develop and commercialize non-smokable and non-combustible medical cannabis products.

In December 2018, we entered into a research partnership with AB InBev, the world’s leading brewer to research non-alcoholic beverages containing THC and CBD in Canada.  AB InBev’s participation is through Labatt Breweries of Canada and Tilray’s participation is through High Park Company, which is a Canadian adult-use subsidiary.  These two companies expect to invest up to $50 million each, for a total of up to $100 million in aggregate, in the joint venture. This project was commercialized to form Fluent Beverage Company which launched CBD beverages in December 2019.

In February 2019, we acquired FHF Holdings Ltd. (“Manitoba Harvest”), which is the world’s largest hemp food company with a retail network of approximately 16,000 stores across North America, including Costco, Amazon, and Wal-Mart.

In October 2019, High Park, our adult-use subsidiary in Canada, announced a partnership with Cannfections, a leader in the confectionery space with 85 years of experience developing and producing the world’s most celebrated confectionery brands, allowing us to expedite innovation and new products to market.

We have entered into agreements to supply adult-use cannabis to eleven provinces and territories. We have been expanding our product offerings and formats since the date of adult-use legalization in Canada, and we intend to continue to increase our distribution of best-in-class brands and products to the Canadian adult-use market.

We have a scientifically rigorous medical cannabis brand approved by governments to supply patients and researchers on five continents. Governments in fifteen countries have issued permits allowing our medical cannabis products to be imported from Canada and/or Portugal for distribution to patients. We believe governments have approved the importation of our products in part because of our reputation for being a scientifically rigorous medical cannabis company known for delivering safe, high-quality products. We are committed to advancing scientific knowledge about the therapeutic potential of cannabis, as demonstrated by our success receiving federal authorizations to supply cannabinoid products to clinical trials in Australia, the United States and Canada and by recruiting a Medical Advisory Board comprised of highly accomplished researchers and physicians specializing in autism, epilepsy, cancer and dermatology.

We have secured the exclusive rights to produce and distribute a broad-based portfolio of certain adult-use brands and products to Canadian consumers for the adult-use market. The brand licensing agreement between a wholly owned subsidiary of ours and Docklight LLC (“Docklight”), a former wholly owned subsidiary of

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Privateer Holdings, Inc., provides us with intellectual property that we believe will give us a competitive advantage for the adult-use market in Canada. The brand licensing agreement includes the rights to recognized brand names and proprietary product formulations for a wide range of products.

We have a track record for continuing to innovate within our industry. We believe our commitment to research and innovation at this early stage of our industry’s development differentiates us and gives us a competitive advantage. We have invested significant capital to develop innovative cultivation practices and facilities and proprietary product formulations.

We have developed a rigorous, proprietary production process to ensure consistency and quality as we increase the scale of our operations globally. We pride ourselves on consistently delivering high-quality products with precise chemical compositions. We were the first cannabis company with a North American production facility to be GMP-certified in accordance with EMA standards. We believe GMP certification provides regulators and health care providers in countries new to medical cannabis with confidence that our products are a safe, high-quality choice.

We have a highly experienced management team. We believe our management team is one of the most knowledgeable and experienced in the cannabis industry. We recognize that our industry is in the early stages of its development and that we are taking a long-term, global view towards its development. Our management team has significant experience evaluating potential transactions, partnerships and other growth opportunities, and we pride ourselves on making investment decisions that we believe will allow us to grow our business over the long term. We have continued to identify and acquire talent from leading global companies to join our team. We are confident that our team has the diversity and depth of experience to propel Tilray into a global leadership position.

Our Growth Strategy

We aspire to build the world’s most trusted and valuable global cannabis and hemp company through the following key strategies:

Expanding our production capacity in North America and Europe to meet current and expected long-term demand growth. To capitalize on the market opportunity in North America and globally, we are investing to expand our production capacity and to automate certain cultivation, processing and packaging processes to gain efficiencies as we increase the scale of our operations.

Partnering with established distributors and retailers. As the industry evolves, we believe that the distribution of medical cannabis will increasingly mirror the distribution of other pharmaceutical products. Likewise, we believe the distribution of adult-use cannabis and hemp products will increasingly mirror the distribution of other consumer packaged goods. To efficiently and rapidly increase our scale, we are partnering with established distributors and retailers globally.

Developing a differentiated portfolio of brands and products to appeal to diverse sets of patients and consumers. We have established Tilray as a global pioneer shaping the future of the medical cannabis industry by developing a portfolio of high-quality medical cannabis and cannabinoid-based products ranging from dried flower to capsules to oils to well-defined clinical preparations. We will continue to invest in a differentiated portfolio of brands and products to appeal to a wide variety of patients and consumers. We recently developed and launched non-combustible products that offer an alternative to smoking, which we believe will account for the majority of products on the market over the long term. These products include beverages, vape products and edibles.

Expanding the addressable medical market by investing in clinical research and winning the trust of regulators, researchers and physicians in countries new to medical cannabis. We are expanding our addressable medical market by working collaboratively with regulators to implement safe access programs for patients. We provide clinical data to physicians and researchers on the safety and efficacy of medical cannabis to foster mainstream acceptance and enhance our reputation.

Maintaining a rigorous and relentless focus on operational excellence and product quality. We have strategically invested ahead of our growth in our operations, including cultivation, manufacturing and multichannel distribution. In doing so, we have developed a quality management system that enables us to meet the requirements of regulatory agencies in the markets where we export products, while consistently delivering high-quality products. As we continue to grow, we have the opportunity to leverage these investments while maintaining the highest level of safety and quality.

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Continued innovation within our industry. We have at least fifty filed patents in the fields of cannabis processing technology, formulation, composition delivery system, and treatment methods.  Our business partnerships have expanded to include partnerships with global, pharmaceutical companies, consumer product goods companies, distributors, and renowned research and development companies.  We believe our growing partnerships with established companies will differentiate us and position us to become a dominant leader in product and process innovation and brand development.  We also continue to establish partnerships with leading research institutions and our clinical trials continue to generate safety and efficacy data that can inform treatment decisions, lead to the development of new products, position us to register medicines for market authorization, and enable us to obtain insurance reimbursement where feasible.

Our Brands and Products

Our brand and product strategy centers on developing a broad-based portfolio of differentiated cannabis and hemp brands and products designed to appeal to diverse sets of patients and consumers. These brands and products have been tailored to comply with requirements introduced under local regulations, such as the inclusion of health warnings on labels and restrictions on marketing, and will continue to be adapted as regulators permit a broader range of form factors and revises its labeling and packaging requirements accordingly. Since 2010, members of our management team have been conducting research in more than a dozen countries by consulting third-party industry databases with market and consumer insights data available in various cannabis markets around the world, by commissioning proprietary third-party research and by licensing intellectual property from established cannabis brands.

Our Medical Brand: Tilray

The Tilray brand is designed to appeal to the global medical market by offering a wide range of high-quality, pharmaceutical-grade medical cannabis and cannabinoid-based products. We offer our products to patients, physicians, clinics, pharmacies, governments, hospitals and researchers for commercial purposes, compassionate access and clinical research.

We believe patients choose Tilray because we are a trusted, scientifically rigorous brand known for producing pure, precise and predictable medical-grade products. We have successfully grown over 50 cultivars of cannabis and developed a wide variety of extract products and formulations. Our global portfolio of medical cannabis products includes the following form factor platforms:

whole flower;

ground flower;

full-spectrum oil drops and capsules;

purified oil drops medical vape pens; and

clinical compounds.

Each form factor platform is divided into different product categories that correspond with the particular chemical composition of each product based on the concentration of two active ingredients: THC and CBD. For instance, our whole flower and full-spectrum oil drops and capsules are available in categories THC-Dominant, CBD-Dominant and THC and CBD Balanced.

Our product line focuses on active ingredients and standardized, well-defined preparation methods. We use formulations and delivery formats that are intended to allow for consistent and measured dosing, and we test all our products for potency and purity. Each of our commercial products are developed with comprehensive analysis and thorough documentation. We follow detailed and rigorous documentation standards not only for our own internal purposes but also because this type of documentation is required by researchers, regulators, importers and distributors.

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We take a scientific approach to our medical-use product development, which we believe gives us credibility and respect in the medical community. We produce products that are characterized by well-defined and reproducible cannabinoid and terpene content, formulated for stable pharmacokinetic profiles, which are customizable in a variety of formulations and available in capsule or liquid forms. We continue to conduct extensive research and development activities as well as develop and promote new products for medical use. We are also currently working with established pharmaceutical companies, such as Sandoz Canada, a division of Novartis, to develop non-combustible, co-branded products for sale in pharmacies when regulations permit.

Our Adult-Use Brands

Our wholly owned subsidiary designed to cultivate, produce, sell and distribute adult-use cannabis brands and products, High Park Company, developed and launched new brands for the adult-use market in Canada which are wholly owned by us, such as CANACA™, Yukon Rove™ and Dubon™, The Batch/La Batch™ and Chowie Wowie™. We have also secured the exclusive rights from Docklight to produce and distribute a broad-based portfolio of certain adult-use brands and products in Canada. The brand licensing agreement includes the rights to recognized brands and proprietary product formulations for a wide range of products.

We currently produce and distribute these brands and products to Canadian consumers through High Park Company, formed to serve the adult-use market in Canada, and have introduced additional brands and products inclusive of vapes, beverages and edibles and have additional innovative products in our pipeline.

Our portfolio of brands and products have been specifically adapted, and our marketing activities carefully structured, to enable us to develop our brands in an effective and compliant manner.

Retail Strategy and Brands

We have the foundation in place to be a leader in the adult-use cannabis market with High Park Company.  In October 2018, when the Canadian government federally legalized adult-use cannabis, High Park Company launched a number of cannabis products under various brands in the country’s largest markets, including Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. Our understanding of the adult-use consumer is informed by extensive research, including post-adult use legalization focus groups across the country including Toronto, Vancouver and Quebec City.

We have established our portfolio and pricing strategies to compete for what we believe to be the largest adult-use consumer segments of the addressable market.

We also believe we have industry-leading customer service, supported by trained, multilingual customer service representatives available 24 hours a day, seven days a week from our Canadian call center.

The brands launched across Canada as part of Phase 1 legalizations includes:

 

o

Canaca – A brand that proudly builds on its homegrown heritage with cannabis whole flower, pre-rolls, oil products and pure cannabis vapes handcrafted by and for Canadian cannabis enthusiasts. Our plants are sourced in BC and expertly cultivated in Ontario for homegrown, down-to-earth quality that’s enjoyed across Canada.

 

o

Irisa – A women’s wellness brand created with modern health and wellness seekers in mind. Irisa products include cannabis oil drops designed to naturally integrate with consumers’ self-care rituals.

 

o

Grail – A super-premium cannabis brand that offers discerning connoisseurs a collection of sought-after cultivars and top-shelf products.  

 

o

Dubon – “the good stuff”, a vibrantly Québécois cannabis brand and champion of inspired, creative living. Dubon offers master-crafted cannabis cultivars as whole flower and pre-rolls, exclusively available in Québec.

 

o

Yukon Rove – A cannabis brand born “wild and free” with the unique spirit of Northern-Canada.  Yukon Rove offers an assortment of local favorite cultivars from in whole flower and pre-rolls, exclusively in the Yukon territory.

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o

The Batch - A no-frills cannabis value brand focused on delivering quality cannabis flower and pre-rolls at competitive prices. The Batch categorizes its product offering by potency rather than cultivar, allowing us to offer quality cannabis at prices that beat the illicit market.

 

The brands launched in December 2019 as part of Phase 2 legalization that began in December 2019, include:

 

o

Marley Natural - Crafted with deep respect for wellness and the positive potential of the herb. Marley Natural pure cannabis oil vape products are currently available nationwide in Canada.

 

o

Chowie Wowie - A new edibles brand bringing the ‘wow’ with perfectly crafted fusions of flavor offered in an array of reliably dosed cannabis-infused chocolates and gummies in THC and CBD varieties.  Chowie Wowie cannabis infused milk-chocolates are currently available across Canada.

 

o

Everie - Fluent, High Park’s joint venture with Labatt Breweries of Canada, introduced Everie, their debut brand of non-alcoholic CBD-infused beverages, with 98% pure CBD isolate and all natural flavors.  Everie has launched ready-to-brew teas nationwide in Canada and expect to roll-out further products in 2020.

The brands expected to launch in 2020 as part of the Phase 2 legalization that began in December 2019 include:

 

o

Goodship - Makers of damn fine edibles, create the industry’s most delectable cannabis-infused baked goods, chocolates and confections.

 

o

Rmdy. -  A CBD-rich wellness brand formulated for wellness seekers will roll-out a variety of edibles and non-combustible cannabis products including mints, melts and all-in-one pens.

High Park Company launched a physical and online retail presence in October 2018 with product available for sale in British Columbia, Yukon, North West Territories, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec and Prince Edward Island.  In March 2019, High Park Company has expanded its presence to include retail access in Alberta and Manitoba. In June 2019, High Park launched retail availability in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.  As a result of this provincial roll out plan High Park Company products are available in 11 of 13 provinces and territories across Canada and will continue to expand its brand and product offering.

Retail stores in Canada fall under two key banners:

 

1)

Government-operated retail with highly regulated trade practices in British Columbia (hybrid), Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Yukon, North West Territories. 

 

2)

Privately-operated retail in British Columbia (hybrid), Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Newfoundland. 

Supporting the national coverage of retail in Canada, High Park Company has deployed a sales organization with the purpose of driving awareness, trial and sell-through across all government and privately-operated accounts. 

Our Operations

We are building a multinational supply chain and distribution network to capitalize on the global medical cannabis market and the adult-use market in Canada.

Tilray Seattle Regional Office – Seattle, Washington. Members of our senior leadership team are based in Seattle, along with our finance, legal, and information systems staff.

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Tilray North America CampusNanaimo, British Columbia. We believe that Tilray Nanaimo is one of the world’s most sophisticated, technologically advanced licensed cannabis production facilities based on the amount of capital we have invested, the amount of data we have generated about how to grow cannabis well and the standard operating procedures we have created to ensure maximum yield and product quality. Tilray Nanaimo is a 60,000-square foot facility. It houses approximately 40,000 plants in 33 cultivation rooms, five manufacturing and processing rooms and three laboratories, including an advanced extraction laboratory, all of which allow us to produce more than 50 distinct cannabis strains and various cannabis extract products. The primary purpose of Tilray Nanaimo is to continue to serve the Canadian medical market and the global medical export market for the near term. Tilray Nanaimo is licensed by Health Canada and is GMP-certified by multiple EU recognized health regulators, or Competent Authorities. It also features a patient and physician service center that is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week and staffed with support personnel who speak multiple languages, delivering what we believe to be the best customer service in the industry. At this facility we complete each step of the production process including housing mother stock, cutting clones, cultivating pre-vegetative, vegetative and flowering plants; harvesting and curing plants; securing product in the vault; trimming product; extracting cannabinoids from harvested products; analyzing products in our lab; and packaging and shipping.

Tilray & High Park Toronto Regional Office – Toronto, Ontario. Members of our senior leadership team are based in Toronto, along with our finance, legal, sales and marketing staff.

Tilray European Union Regional Office – Berlin, Germany. Our executive, finance, sales, marketing, operations and regulatory support staff for the EU are located in Berlin, Germany.

Tilray Australia and New Zealand Regional Office – Sydney, Australia. Our sales, marketing and operations team focused on Australia and New Zealand are based in Sydney. We have signed two government contracts with the largest states in Australia: New South Wales and Victoria to supply medical cannabis to children suffering from pediatric epilepsy. Our products are available in three major hospitals in Victoria, as well as other hospitals and pharmacies throughout Australia and New Zealand.

Tilray European Union Campus – Cantanhede, Portugal. In July 2017, the Portuguese National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED) awarded Tilray a license to cultivate, import and export bulk medical cannabis. The 2.7 million square-foot campus includes an outdoor cultivation plot which was first harvested in the fall of 2018, a greenhouse with a first harvest completed in February 2019, and GMP-certified manufacturing facility. Tilray Portugal will serve as our primary supply source for patients in the EU that have access to cannabis-derived products. To date we have supplied Germany and Israel from our EU campus. Locating cultivation and manufacturing operations in the EU results in easier and more cost-effective production and distribution. Although each EU member state has its own health and drugs regulatory body, these entities have ongoing cooperation mechanisms that promote similar, though not equal, treatment for medical cannabis, which we believe will facilitate cannabis product sales from Portugal into other European countries.

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High Park Farms – Enniskillen, Ontario. We have repurposed over 626,000 square feet of existing non-cannabis greenhouses on a 100-acre site in Enniskillen, to serve as High Park Farms. We entered into a three-year lease agreement in October 2017 with an option to extend for three years. We also have a purchase option on the property, which is exercisable at any time during the term of the lease, including the renewal term. The renovation of the greenhouse for flower production and construction of the 40,000-square foot processing facility was completed and licensed by Health Canada on April 15, 2018. The facility currently cultivates and processes products for the Canadian adult-use market.

High Park Processing Facility – London, Ontario. We entered a 10-year lease in February 2018 for a 56,000-square foot processing facility in London. We have exercised the option to purchase the property in December 2022. This facility handles all post-harvest processing from cannabis harvested at the High Park Farms and High Park Gardens. The High Park Processing Facility received a processing license in January 2019 and sales license in April 2019 from Health Canada. We are capable of producing a range of products at this facility including edibles, beverages, capsules, vaporizer oils, vape pens, tinctures, sprays, topicals, pre-rolls and dried flower products. In November 2019, we entered a 10-year lease for a 78,000 square-foot warehousing and processing facility in London with two 5-year renewal options and options to purchase. We anticipate licensing and operating the facility in the third quarter of 2020.

High Park Gardens – Leamington, Ontario.  In February 2019, we acquired a 662,000 square-foot greenhouse cultivation facility, of which 270,000 square-feet are currently licensed by Health Canada and being utilized as operational cultivation space.

Manitoba Harvest Processing – Ste. Agathe, Manitoba.  In February 2019, we acquired Manitoba Harvest which owns and operates a 35,000 square-foot hemp seed processing facility.

Manitoba Harvest Packaging – Winnipeg, Manitoba.  In February 2019, we acquired Manitoba Harvest which leases and operates a 15,000 square-foot hemp seed packaging facility.

Manitoba Harvest Corporate Offices –Minneapolis, Minnesota. Our sales, marketing and senior leadership team focused on United States and Canada hemp foods and CBD distribution through major health and wellness retailers.

Smith & Sinclair Corporate Offices –London, U.K. and New York, USA. Smith & Sinclair, which develops and distributes alcohol-infused confections and edibles, operates its global business from London. Smith & Sinclair’s new subsidiary, Pollen, which creates and distributes high quality CBD products operates primarily outside of the United States.

Total Global Production and Processing Capacity

Our total production area is 3.6 million square feet as of January 2020. We believe that the maximum potential development of the parcels we currently own or lease would be 8.1 million square feet.

Sales and Distribution

Pharmaceutical distribution and pharmacy supply agreements. We work with established pharmaceutical distributors and pharmacy suppliers to sell our products around the world.

In Canada, we have entered into a definitive agreement to supply Shoppers Drug Mart, the largest pharmacy chain in Canada, with our cannabis products. Shoppers Drug Mart is currently distributing our products under its license to sell cannabis products for medical purposes. We believe we are one of four Licensed Producers who have entered into supply agreements with Shoppers Drug Mart. Additionally, we have signed a collaboration agreement with Sandoz Canada, a division of Novartis, to market our non-combustible products to health care practitioners and pharmacists and to co-develop new cannabis products.

In Germany, our products are distributed via multiple wholesalers, including Noweda, a cooperative comprised of approximately 9,000 pharmacists with a network of 16,000 pharmacies throughout Germany and one of the largest wholesalers of pharmaceutical products in Germany, to fulfill prescriptions of our medical cannabis products across Germany.

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Elsewhere around the world, we have formed partnerships with distributors in multiple countries. Our medical cannabis products are currently available in fifteen countries, including Argentina, Australia, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Israel, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom. We have also entered into a global framework agreement with Sandoz AG, pursuant to which we have the option to work with Sandoz AG to develop and commercialize non-smokable and non-combustible medical cannabis products internationally.

Adult-use supply agreements. High Park Company launched a physical and online retail presence in October 2018 with product available for sale in British Columbia, Yukon, North West Territories, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec and Prince Edward Island.  In March of 2019, High Park Company expanded its presence to include retail access in Alberta and Manitoba. High Park products are available in 11 of 13 provinces and territories across Canada and will continue to expand its brand and product offering.

 

Direct-to-patient (“DTP”). In Canada, medical cannabis patients order from us primarily through our e-commerce platform or over the phone. In Canada, medical cannabis is and will continue to be delivered by secured courier or other methods permitted by the Cannabis Regulations. The DTP channel accounts for the majority of our medical sales.

Wholesale. In Canada, we are also authorized under the Cannabis Regulations to wholesale bulk and finished cannabis products to other licensees under the Cannabis Regulations (“Licensed Producers”). The bulk wholesale sales and distribution channel requires minimal selling, general, administrative and fulfillment costs. We intend to pursue these wholesale sales channels as a part of our adult-use and medical-use growth strategies in Canada.

Our Commitment to Research and Innovation

We believe that our strength as a medical brand is rooted in our commitment to research and development. Our research and development program focuses on developing innovative products, including novel delivery systems and precisely formulated cannabinoid products, and on the creation and improvement of methods, processes and technologies that allow us to efficiently manufacture such products on a large scale.

Patents and proprietary programs. Our commitment to innovation is a core tenet.  We have at least fifty filed patents in the fields of cannabis processing technology, formulation, composition delivery system, and treatment methods.  We have developed a number of innovative and proprietary programs designed to improve efficiency and overall product quality, including: a micro-propagation program that allows for the mass production of disease-free cannabis plants; methods and formulations to improve cannabinoid bioavailability and stability; a delivery platform to allow for the quick and efficient delivery of cannabinoids in formulation; the fast preservation methods that allow for improved smell, texture and flavor of cannabis products; an integrated pest management system; proprietary plant trimming machines to minimize manufacturing waste and software improvements to optimize manufacturing, inventory and distribution processes.

Trademarks and trade dress. We invest heavily in our growing trademark portfolio and hold at least 70 approved or registered trademarks in a variety of countries, including Canada, the United States, the EU, Australia, Israel and several countries in South America and Asia.  We also have at least 110 additional trademarks filed and pending in several countries throughout the world.  In addition, as a result of our brand licensing agreement with a former Privateer Holdings subsidiary, we have exclusive access in Canada to a number of strong marks, both registered and applied-for, including Marley Natural and Goodship.

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Observational research program.  We have implemented an extensive observational research program which includes large-scale prospective and cross-sectional studies in order to gather pre-clinical evidence on medical cannabis patient patterns of use, and the impact of that use on sleep, pain, mental health, quality of life, and the use of opioids/prescription drugs, alcohol, tobacco and other substances. These studies include a biennial national Canadian Cannabis Patient Survey (“CCPS”), the Tilray Observational Patient Study (“TOPS”), and the Medical Cannabis in Older Patients Study (“MCOPS”). This research takes place in partnership with Canadian and United States academic institutions, and has provided insight into the use of cannabis in the treatment of headaches/migraines, anxiety, and problematic substance use, and has led to a number of publications in high ranking academic journals, including the following:

Lucas, P., & Walsh, Z. (2017). Medical cannabis access, use, and substitution for prescription opioids and other substances: A survey of authorized medical cannabis patients. International Journal of Drug Policy, 42, 30–35.

Baron, E. P., Lucas, P., Eades, J., & Hogue, O. (2018). Patterns of medicinal cannabis use, strain analysis, and substitution effect among patients with migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain in a medicinal cannabis cohort. The Journal of Headache and Pain, 19(1), 37.

Lucas, P., Baron, E. P., & Jikomes, N. (2019). Medical cannabis patterns of use and substitution for opioids & other pharmaceutical drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances; results from a cross-sectional survey of authorized patients. Harm Reduction Journal, 16(1), 9.

Turna, J., Simpson, W., Patterson, B., Lucas, P., & Van Ameringen, M. (2019). Cannabis use behaviors and prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Canadian medicinal cannabis users. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 111, 134–139.

Clinical trials. Participation in clinical trials is a differentiating element of our research and development program. We believe that the development of clinical data on the use of well-characterized and properly defined cannabinoid products will increase mainstream acceptance within the medical community. As such, we have developed techniques that achieve pharmaceutical-grade Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (“APIs”) extracted from the cannabis plant to allow Tilray to partner with select academic research partners on trials that meet regulatory agency standards.  Our participation in clinical studies includes R&D on the investigational study drug to generate the Chemistry and Manufacturing Controls (“CMC”) documentation required by regulatory agencies, collation of the CMC sections our investigational study drugs, as well as providing assistance in designing the protocol and determining the formulation of the study drug. In some cases, we provide funding for the study itself and/or pharmacokinetic data on the specific study drug. Although some trials, such as the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, or CINV, trial described below, are undertaken with an aim toward market authorization, most of the trials we participate in serve to generate early phase data that can be used to support patent filings, basic prescribing data for physicians, and signals of efficacy to narrow our focus for future clinical trials.  We leverage our research by educating physicians about the unique benefits of cannabis-based medicines in various treatments, which we believe promotes the Tilray brand as the most trusted medical brand in the industry. Our Medical Advisory Board, consisting of experts in a variety of areas, participates in the clinical trial selection process and provides us with additional credibility as a clinical trial participant.

 

Clinical trials are typically conducted in phases, with Phase I establishing the safety and pharmacokinetics of the investigational study drug, Phase II further providing a signal for the drug’s efficacy and Phase III establishing statistical significance for the treatment of the disease or symptom being studied over the placebo. Below is a list of the clinical trials in which we are currently involved.  

 

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Clinical Trials

 

 

1 See the section titled “Risk Factors

2 Regulatory approval pending

 

 

Regulatory Environment

Canadian Medical and Adult-Use

Medical and adult-use cannabis in Canada is regulated under the Cannabis Regulations (“CR”), promulgated under the Cannabis Act. Both the CR and the Cannabis Act were adopted in October 2018, superseding earlier regulations that permitted commercial distribution and home cultivation of medical cannabis.  Health Canada, a federal government entity, is the oversight and regulatory body for cannabis licenses in Canada. The following are the highlights of the legislation:

allows individuals over the age of 18 to purchase, possess and cultivate limited amounts of cannabis for adult-use purposes; each province is also being permitted to adopt its own laws governing the distribution, sale and consumption of cannabis and cannabis accessory products within the province, and those laws may set lower maximum permitted quantities for individuals and higher age requirements;

promotion, packaging and labelling of cannabis is strictly regulated. For example, promotion is largely restricted to the place of sale and legally age-gated environments, and promotions that appeal to underage individuals are prohibited;

currently, limited classes of cannabis, including dried cannabis and oils, are permitted for sale into the medical and adult-use markets.

other non-combustible form-factors, including edibles, topicals, and extracts (both ingested and inhaled), are permitted in the adult-use and medical market as of December 17, 2019;

export is restricted to medical cannabis, cannabis for scientific purposes and industrial hemp; and

sale of medical cannabis occurs largely on a direct-to-patient basis, while sale of adult-use cannabis occurs through retail-distribution models established by provincial and territorial governments.

The retail-distribution models for adult-use cannabis vary nationwide:

Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island have adopted a government-run model for retail and distribution;

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Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba and Newfoundland have adopted a hybrid model with some aspects, including distribution and online retail being government-run while allowing for private retail;

Saskatchewan has announced a fully private system;

the three northern territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut have adopted a model that mirrors their government-run liquor distribution model.

All provinces and territories have secured supply agreements from Licensed Producers for their respective markets, and we are fulfilling adult-use supply agreements and purchase orders from various jurisdictions, consisting of: Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Northwest Territories, and the Yukon.

United States Regulation of Hemp

Hemp products are subject to state and federal regulation in respect of the production, distribution and sale of products intended for human ingestion or topical application. Hemp is categorized as Cannabis sativa L., a subspecies of the cannabis genus. Numerous unique, chemical compounds are extractable from Hemp, including THC and CBD. These cannabinoids are responsible for a range of potential psychological and physiological effects. Hemp, as defined in the 2018 Farm Bill, is distinguishable from marijuana, which also comes from the Cannabis sativa L. subspecies, by its absence of more than trace amounts (0.3% or less) of the psychoactive compound THC. Although international standards vary, other countries, such as Canada, have used the same THC potency standards to define Hemp.

The 2018 Farm Bill preserves the authority and jurisdiction of the FDA, under the FD&C Act, to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and sale of food, drugs, dietary supplements, and cosmetics, including products that contain Hemp extracts and derivatives, such as CBD. As a result, the FD&C Act will continue to apply to Hemp-derived food, drugs, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and devices introduced, or prepared for introduction, into interstate commerce. As a producer and marketer of Hemp-derived products, the Company must comply with the FDA regulations applicable to manufacturing and marketing of certain products, including food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.

As a result of the 2018 Farm Bill, federal law now provides that CBD derived from Hemp is not a controlled substance; however, CBD derived from Hemp could still be considered a controlled substance under applicable state law. States take varying approaches to regulating the production and sale of Hemp and Hemp-derived CBD. While some states explicitly authorize and regulate the production and sale of Hemp-derived CBD or otherwise provide legal protection for authorized individuals to engage in commercial Hemp activities, other states maintain drug laws that do not distinguish between marijuana and Hemp and/or Hemp-derived CBD, resulting in Hemp being classified as a controlled substance under certain state laws.

European Union Medical Use

While each country in the EU has its own laws and regulations, there are many commonalities in how the medical cannabis markets for EU countries are developing. For example, to ensure quality and safe products for patients, many EU countries only permit the import and sale of medical cannabis when the manufacturer can demonstrate certification by a Competent Authority of compliance with GMP standards.

The EU requires adherence to GMP standards for the manufacture of active substances and medicinal products, including cannabis products. Under the system for certification of GMP adopted in the EU, a Competent Authority of any EU member state may conduct an inspection at a drug manufacturing site and, if the GMP standards are met, a certificate of GMP compliance is issued to the manufacturer for specific elements of the manufacturing process being carried on at that site.

Each country in the EU will generally recognize a GMP certificate issued by any Competent Authority within the EU as evidence of compliance with GMP standards. Certificates of GMP compliance issued by a Competent Authority in another country outside of the EU will also be recognized if that country has a mutual recognition agreement with the EU.

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Competitive Conditions

As of February 2020, more than 308 licenses were issued by Health Canada. Health Canada licenses are limited to individual properties. As such, if a Licensed Producer seeks to commence production at a new site, it must apply to Health Canada for a new license. As of January 2020, the current points of distributions are also limited, with only roughly 735 stores open across Canada. As the demand for legal cannabis increases and retail distribution points increase, we believe that new competitors will enter the market. The principal competitive factors on which we compete with other Licensed Producers are the quality, consistency and variety of cannabis products, brand recognition and physician familiarity.

In addition, we expect more countries will pass regulation allowing for medical cannabis use. We expect this to translate to increased competition internationally.

Employees

As of December 31, 2019, we employed 1,646 total employees, located in Canada, Germany, Portugal, Ireland the United States, Australia and Czech Republic, including 1,068 employees in research, product development, engineering and operations and logistics, 298 employees in general and administrative and 248 employees in sales and marketing.  We consider relations with our employees to be good and have never experienced work stoppage.  Apart from certain employees in Portugal, none of our employees are represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement.  In Portugal, some of our employees are subject to a government-mandated collective bargaining agreement, which grants affected employees certain additional benefits beyond those required by the local labor code.

Our Company

Tilray, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in January 2018. Prior to January 2018, we operated our business under Decatur Holdings, BV, a Dutch private limited liability company (“Decatur”), which was formed in March 2016. Decatur was incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands on March 8, 2016 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Privateer Holdings, Inc. to hold a 100% ownership interest in our direct and indirect subsidiaries through which we operated our business. Privateer Holdings, Inc. transferred 100% of its equity interest in Decatur to Tilray, Inc. on January 25, 2018 and Decatur was dissolved on December 27, 2018.

Website Access

Our website address is www.tilray.com. We make available, free of charge on our website, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such reports with, or furnishing them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Such reports are also available at www.sec.gov. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference in, or otherwise part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any of our other filings with the SEC.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Careful consideration should be given to the following risk factors, in addition to the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents that we file with the SEC or publicly in Canada, in evaluating our company and our business. Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently consider to not be material may also materially and adversely affect our company and our business.

Risks Related to Medical Cannabis Business

We are dependent upon regulatory approvals and licenses for our ability to grow, process, package, store, sell and export medical cannabis and other products derived therefrom, and these regulatory approvals are subject to ongoing compliance requirements, reporting obligations and fixed terms requiring renewal.

Our ability to grow, process, package, store and sell dried cannabis, cannabis oil and capsules, and other classes of cannabis, including both oil and capsules, for medical purposes in Canada is dependent on our current Health Canada licenses under the Cannabis Regulations, or “CR”, covering our production facility and patient call center at our Tilray North America Campus in Nanaimo, British Columbia, or Tilray Nanaimo. These licenses allow us to produce cannabis in bulk and finished forms at Tilray Nanaimo and to sell and distribute such cannabis in Canada. They also allow us to import and export medical cannabis in bulk and finished form to and from specified jurisdictions around the world, subject to obtaining, for each specific shipment, an export approval from Health Canada and an import approval (or no objection notice) from the applicable regulatory authority in the country to or from which the export or import is being made. The CR licenses for Tilray Nanaimo are valid for fixed periods and will need to be renewed at the end of such periods.

We also hold licenses under the CR covering our facilities in Enniskillen, London, and Leamington, Ontario which we use to service the adult-use market and support the medical market as needed. These licenses allow us to produce, sell, and distribute cannabis and/or cannabis products in Canada. These licenses are valid for fixed periods and will need to be renewed at the end of such periods.

Our ability to operate in our facility at our Tilray European Union Campus located in Cantanhede, Portugal, or Tilray Portugal, is dependent on our current authorization for the cultivation, import and export of cannabis and our Good Manufacturing Practices, or GMP, certification by the Portuguese National Authority of Medicines and Health Products, or INFARMED, for manufacture of cannabis as an active pharmaceutical ingredient, and is dependent on our current authorization for the manufacture of finished cannabis products and GMP certification for manufacture of cannabis as a finished medicinal product. Our current authorization for cultivation, import and export of cannabis is valid for a single growing season at a time and notification to INFARMED is needed to renew the license for subsequent growing seasons. All licenses are subject to ongoing compliance and reporting requirements and renewal.

We intend to apply for a sale license for cannabis products under the CR for our facility in Leamington, Ontario. Any future medical cannabis production facilities that we operate in Canada will also be subject to separate licensing requirements under the CR. Although we believe that we will meet the requirements of the CR for future renewals of our existing licenses, and grants of permits under such licenses, and to obtain corresponding licenses for future facilities in Canada, there can be no assurance that existing licenses will be renewed or new licenses obtained on the same or similar terms as our existing licenses, nor can there be any assurance that Health Canada will continue to issue import or export permits on the same terms or on the same timeline, or that other countries will allow, or continue to allow, imports or exports.

Further, we are subject to ongoing inspections by Health Canada and INFARMED to monitor our compliance with their licensing requirements. Our existing licenses and any new licenses that we may obtain in the future in Canada or other jurisdictions may be revoked or restricted at any time in the event that we are found not to be in compliance. Should we fail to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements or with conditions set out under our licenses, should our licenses not be renewed when required, be renewed on different terms, or be revoked, we may not be able to continue producing or distributing medical cannabis in Canada or other jurisdictions or to export medical cannabis outside of Canada or Portugal. In addition, we may be subject to enforcement proceedings resulting from a failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements in Canada or other jurisdictions, which could result in damage awards, a suspension of our existing approvals, a withdrawal of our existing approvals, the

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denial of the renewal of our existing approvals or any future approvals, recalls of products, product seizures, the imposition of future operating restrictions on our business or operations or the imposition of civil, regulatory or criminal fines or penalties against us, our officers and directors and other parties. These enforcement actions could delay or entirely prevent us from continuing the production, testing, marketing, sale or distribution of our medical products and divert managements attention and resources away from our business operations.

The laws, regulations and guidelines generally applicable to the medical cannabis industry in Canada and other countries may change in ways that impact our ability to continue our business as currently conducted or proposed to be conducted.

The successful execution of our medical cannabis business objectives is contingent upon compliance with all applicable laws and regulatory requirements in Canada and other jurisdictions, including the requirements of the CR in Canada, and obtaining all other required regulatory approvals for the sale, import and export of our medical cannabis products. The commercial medical cannabis industry is a relatively new industry in Canada and the CR is a regime that has only been in effect in its current form since October 2018. The effect of Health Canadas administration, application and enforcement of the regime established by the CR on us and our business in Canada, or the administration, application and enforcement of the laws of other countries by the appropriate regulators in those countries, may significantly delay or impact our ability to participate in the Canadian medical cannabis market or medical cannabis markets outside Canada, to develop medical cannabis products and produce and sell these medical cannabis products.

Further, Health Canada or the regulatory authorities in other countries in which we operate or to which we export our medical cannabis products may change their administration, interpretation or application of the applicable regulations or their compliance or enforcement procedures at any time. Any such changes could require us to revise our ongoing compliance procedures, requiring us to incur increased compliance costs and expend additional resources. There is no assurance that we will be able to comply or continue to comply with applicable regulations.

Any failure on our part to comply with applicable regulations could prevent us from being able to carry on our business.

Health Canada inspectors routinely assess Tilray Nanaimo, High Park Farms, High Park Processing Facility, and High Park Gardens for compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. Our Tilray Portugal facilities have also been inspected for compliance by applicable regulators following completion of the construction and will be subject to certain ongoing inspections and audits once licensing is complete. Furthermore, the import of our products into other jurisdictions, such as Germany, Israel and Australia, is subject to the regulatory requirements of the respective jurisdiction. Any failure by us to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements could require extensive changes to our operations; result in regulatory or agency proceedings or investigations, increased compliance costs, damage awards, civil or criminal fines or penalties or restrictions on our operations; and harm our reputation or give rise to material liabilities or a revocation of our licenses and other permits. There can be no assurance that any pending or future regulatory or agency proceedings, investigations or audits will not result in substantial costs, a diversion of managements attention and resources or other adverse consequences to us and our business.

Our ability to produce and sell our medical products in, and export our medical products to, other jurisdictions outside of Canada is dependent on compliance with additional regulatory and other requirements.

We are required to obtain and maintain certain permits, licenses or other approvals from regulatory agencies in countries and markets outside of Canada in which we operate, or to which we export, to produce or export to, and sell our medical products in, these countries, including, in the case of certain countries, the ability to demonstrate compliance with GMP standards. Our current certification of compliance with GMP standards for production at Tilray Nanaimo and any other GMP certification that we may receive in the future subject us, or will in the future subject us, to extensive ongoing compliance reviews to ensure that we continue to maintain compliance with GMP standards. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to comply with these standards.

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The continuation or expansion of our international operations depends on our ability to renew or secure necessary permits, licenses and other approvals. An agencys denial of or delay in issuing or renewing a permit, license or other approval, or revocation or substantial modification of an existing permit, license or approval, could prevent us from continuing our operations in, marketing efforts in, or exporting to countries other than Canada. For example, Tilray Nanaimos current certification of GMP compliance must be renewed via re-inspection prior to October 2020, and our failure to maintain such certification, or to comply with applicable industry quality assurance standards or receive similar regulatory certifications at any of our other facilities, may prevent us from continuing the expansion of our international operations. In addition, the export and import of medical cannabis is subject to United Nations treaties establishing country-by-country national estimates and our export and import permits are subject to these estimates which could limit the amount of medical cannabis we can export to any particular country.

The long-term effect of the legalization of adult-use cannabis in Canada on the medical cannabis industry is unknown (including recently amended Canadian cannabis regulations, or Cannabis 2.0), and may have a significant negative effect upon our medical cannabis business if our existing or future medical use customers decide to purchase products available in the adult-use market instead of purchasing medical use products from us.

In June 2018, the government of Canada passed Bill C-45, or the Cannabis Act, the Canadian federal legislation allowing individuals over the age of 18 to legally purchase, process and cultivate limited amounts of cannabis for adult use in Canada. The Cannabis Act and accompanying regulations, the CR, became effective on October 17, 2018. On October 17, 2019, the CR was further amended to permit the sale of new classes of cannabis through both adult-use and medical channels, which classes became available starting December 16, 2019. Individuals who previously relied upon the medical cannabis market to supply their medical cannabis and cannabis-based products may cease this reliance, and instead turn to the adult-use cannabis market to supply their cannabis and cannabis-based products. Factors that may influence this decision include the availability of product in each market, the price of medical cannabis products in relation to similar adult-use cannabis products, and the ease with which each market can be accessed in the individual provinces and territories of Canada. The impact of adult-use cannabis on the medical market is not yet fully understood as the market is still in a state of flux. In addition, new form factors have just been legalized and the degree to which these products will be made available on the medical market versus adult use is not yet known.

A decrease in the overall size of the medical cannabis market as a result of the legal adult-use market in Canada may reduce our medical sales and revenue prospects in Canada. Moreover, the CR regulation of cannabis for medical purposes is expected to be reviewed in light of the adult-use market. The effect on our business, and the medical cannabis market in general, of such a review is uncertain.

There has been limited study on the effects of medical cannabis and future clinical research studies may lead to conclusions that dispute or conflict with our understanding and belief regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing and social acceptance of cannabis.

Research regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy and dosing of cannabis or isolated cannabinoids (such as CBD and THC) remains in relatively early stages. There have been few clinical trials on the benefits of cannabis or isolated cannabinoids conducted by us or by others.

Future research and clinical trials may draw opposing conclusions to statements contained in the articles, reports and studies we have relied on or could reach different or negative conclusions regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing or other facts and perceptions related to medical cannabis, which could adversely affect social acceptance of cannabis and the demand for our products.

Tilray Nanaimo, Manitoba Harvest, High Park Farms, High Park Gardens, High Park Processing Facility and Tilray Portugal are integral to our business and adverse changes or developments affecting any of these facilities may have an adverse impact on us.

Currently, our activities and resources are primarily focused on the operation of Tilray Nanaimo, Manitoba Harvest, High Park Farms, High Park Gardens, Tilray Portugal and our current licenses under the CR are specific to Tilray Nanaimo, High Park Farms, High Park Gardens and our High Park Processing Facility. Adverse changes or developments affecting these facilities, including, but not limited to, disease or infestation of our crops, a fire, an explosion, a power failure, a natural disaster or a material failure of our security infrastructure, could reduce or

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require us to entirely suspend our production of cannabis. A significant failure of our site security measures and other facility requirements, including any failure to comply with regulatory requirements under the CR, could have an impact on our ability to continue operating under our Health Canada licenses and our prospects of renewing our Health Canada licenses, and could also result in a suspension or revocation of these Health Canada licenses. As we produce much of our medical cannabis products in Tilray Nanaimo, any event impacting our ability to continue production at Tilray Nanaimo, or requiring us to delay production, would prevent us from continuing to operate our business until operations at Tilray Nanaimo could be resumed, or until we were able to commence production at another facility.

We expect to expand Tilray Nanaimo, High Park Farms, our High Park Processing Facility, and our Tilray Portugal facilities. We are also contemplating expanding our High Park Gardens facility. We expect that expanded and additional facilities will significantly increase our cultivation, growing, processing and distribution capacity; however, development impediments such as construction delays or cost over-runs in respect to the development of these facilities, howsoever caused, could delay or prevent our ability to produce cannabis at these facilities. It is also possible that the final costs of the major equipment contemplated by our capital expenditure program relating to the development of our High Park Farms, our High Park Processing Facility and Tilray Portugal may be significantly greater than anticipated, in which circumstance we may be required to curtail, or extend the timeframes for completing, such capital expenditure plans which would reduce our production capacity.

If we are unsuccessful in scaling operations at our facilities, we may become increasingly reliant on third-party cannabis suppliers, likely at a higher price than our own cost to produce, which would have a negative impact on gross profit margins.

The medical cannabis industry and market are relatively new, and this industry and market may not continue to exist or develop as anticipated or we may ultimately be unable to succeed in this industry and market.

We are operating our current business in a relatively new medical cannabis industry and market, and our success depends on our ability to attract and retain patients. In addition to being subject to general business risks applicable to a business involving an agricultural product and a regulated consumer product, we need to continue to build brand awareness of our Tilray brand in the medical cannabis industry and make significant investments in our business strategy and production capacity. These investments include introducing new products into the markets in which we operate, adopting quality assurance protocols and procedures, building our international presence and undertaking regulatory compliance efforts. These activities may not promote our medical products as effectively as intended, or at all, and we expect that our competitors will undertake similar investments to compete with us for market share. Competitive conditions, consumer preferences, regulatory conditions, patient requirements, healthcare practitioner prescribing practices, and spending patterns in this industry and market are relatively unknown and may have unique characteristics that differ from other existing industries and markets and that cause our efforts to further our business to be unsuccessful or to have undesired consequences. As a result, we may not be successful in our efforts to attract and retain patients or to develop new medical cannabis products and produce and distribute these medical cannabis products to the markets in which we operate or to which we export in time to be effectively commercialized, or these activities may require significantly more resources than we currently anticipate in order to be successful.

We compete for market share with other companies, including other producers licensed by Health Canada, some of which have longer operating histories and more financial resources and manufacturing and marketing experience than we have.

We face, and we expect to continue to face, intense competition from Licensed Producers and other potential competitors, some of which have longer operating histories and more financial resources and manufacturing and marketing experience than we have. In addition, it is possible that the medical cannabis industry will undergo consolidation, creating larger companies with financial resources, manufacturing and marketing capabilities and product offerings that are greater than ours. As a result of this competition, we may be unable to maintain our operations or develop them as currently proposed, on terms we consider acceptable, or at all.

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There are currently hundreds of applications for Licensed Producer status being processed by Health Canada. The number of licenses granted and the number of Licensed Producers ultimately authorized by Health Canada could have an adverse impact on our ability to compete for market share in Canadas medical cannabis industry. We expect to face additional competition from new market entrants that are granted licenses under the CR or existing license holders that are not yet active in the industry. If a significant number of new licenses are granted by Health Canada, we may experience increased competition for market share and may experience downward price pressure on our medical cannabis products as new entrants increase production.

In addition, the CR permits patients in Canada to produce a limited amount of cannabis for their own medical purposes or to designate a person to produce a limited amount of cannabis on their behalf for such purposes. Widespread reliance upon this allowance could reduce the current or future consumer demand for our medical cannabis products.

If the number of users of cannabis for medical purposes in Canada increases, the demand for products will increase. This could result in the competition in the medical cannabis industry becoming more intense as current and future competitors begin to offer an increasing number of diversified medical cannabis products. Conversely, if there is a contraction in the medical market for cannabis in Canada, competition for market share may increase. To remain competitive, we intend to continue to invest in research and development and sales and patient support; however, we may not have sufficient resources to maintain research and development and sales and patient support efforts on a competitive basis.

In addition to the foregoing, the legal landscape for medical cannabis use is changing internationally. We have operations outside of Canada, which may be affected as other countries develop, adopt and change their medical cannabis laws. Increased international competition, including competition from suppliers in other countries who may be able to produce at lower cost, and limitations placed on us by Canadian or other regulations, might lower the demand for our medical cannabis products on a global scale.

The illicit supply of cannabis and cannabis-based products may reduce our sales and impede our ability to succeed in the medical and adult-use cannabis markets.

In addition to competition from Licensed Producers and those able to produce cannabis legally without a license, we also face competition from unlicensed and unregulated market participants, including illegal dispensaries and illicit market suppliers selling cannabis and cannabis-based products in Canada.

Despite the legalization of medical and adult-use cannabis in Canada, illicit market operations remain abundant and are a substantial competitor to our business. In addition, illegal dispensaries and illicit market participants may be able to (i) offer products with higher concentrations of active ingredients that are either expressly prohibited or impracticable to produce under current Canadian regulations, (ii) brand products more explicitly, and (iii) describe/discuss intended effects of products. As these illicit market participants do not comply with the regulations governing the medical and adult-use cannabis industry in Canada, their operations may also have significantly lower costs.

As a result of the competition presented by the illicit market for cannabis, any unwillingness by consumers currently utilizing these unlicensed distribution channels to begin purchasing from licensed retailers for any reason or any inability or unwillingness of law enforcement authorities to enforce laws prohibiting the unlicensed cultivation and sale of cannabis and cannabis-based products could (i) result in the perpetuation of the illicit market for cannabis, (ii) adversely affect our market share and (iii) adversely impact the public perception of cannabis use and licensed cannabis producers and dealers, all of which would have a materially adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Adult-Use Cannabis

The adult-use cannabis industry, and the regulations governing this industry (included recently amended Canadian regulations, or Cannabis 2.0), may develop in a way that is significantly different from our current expectations, resulting in our decreased ability, or inability, to compete in this market and industry.

There is no assurance that the adult-use cannabis industry, and the regulations governing this industry, will continue to develop as anticipated. There are and will be significant restrictions on the marketing, branding, product formats, product composition, packaging, and distribution channels allowed under the Cannabis Act, which may

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reduce the value of certain of our products and brands or negatively impact our ability to compete with other companies in the adult-use cannabis market in Canada. For instance, adult-use legislation includes a requirement for health warnings on product packaging, the limited ability to use logos and branding (only one brand name and one brand element per package), restrictions on packaging itself, and restrictions on types and avenues of marketing; further, Cannabis 2.0 regulations (which came into force on October 17, 2019) govern the production and sale of new classes or forms of cannabis products (including vapes and, edibles,), and impose considerable restrictions on product composition, labeling, and packaging in addition to being subject to similar marketing restrictions as existing form factors. Additional marketing and product composition restrictions have been imposed by some provinces and territories and are subject to changing interpretation without notice. Provincial or other legislation containing additional restrictions, such as a complete ban on marketing, may impact our ability to do so. Such additional restrictions may impair our ability to develop our adult-use brands, and a complete ban on marketing or additional product restrictions imposed under future regulations, may make it uneconomic or unfeasible for us to introduce our entire portfolio of brands and products into the Canadian market, which means that we will be unable to reap the full benefit of the exclusive rights we have secured to such brands and products or launch new products. Further, each province and territory of Canada has the ability to separately regulate the distribution of cannabis within such province or territory, and the rules (including associated regulations) adopted by these provinces or territories vary significantly. Furthermore, some provinces and territories impose significant restrictions on our ability to merchandise products; for example, some provinces impose restrictions on investment in retailers or distributors and their employees as well as in our ability to negotiate for preferential retail space or in-store marketing. Such variance may make participation in the adult-use cannabis market uneconomic or of limited economic benefit for us in those provinces or territories and could result in significant additional compliance or other costs and limitations on our ability to compete successfully in each such market.

Cannabis 2.0 allows for new and untested Cannabis products and form factors, and we may ultimately be unsuccessful in developing and offering these new products in our Canadian markets.

Cannabis 2.0 regulations permit Licensed Producers to develop new cannabis form factors, including CBD- and THC-infused drinks, edibles and non-flower products. We have and will continue to develop strategic partnerships to participate in these new product market opportunities with partners who can provide complementary product development and support capabilities.   Strategic initiatives around new products involve significant investment of management time and resources in order to successfully execute and maintain, for novel products that may not generate sufficient market demand.  Additionally, there can be no guarantee that such new product offerings, even if successfully developed, will have unit economics that generate an appropriate return on investment.  Cannabis 2.0 could result in diversions of management attention, a strain on existing financial and other resources or a lack of product demand for our newly developed form factors, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Any failure on our part to comply with supplier standards established by provincial or territorial distributors could prevent us from accessing certain markets in Canada.

Government-run provincial and territorial distributors in Canada require suppliers to meet certain service and business standards, and routinely assess for compliance with such standards. Any failure by us to comply with such standards could result in our being downgraded or disqualified as a supplier, and would severely impede or eliminate our ability to access certain markets within Canada.

The adult-use cannabis market in Canada is continuing to develop and may experience supply fluctuations resulting in revenue and price decreases.

As a result of the legalization of adult cannabis use in Canada, the demand for cannabis may dramatically increase. Licensed Producers, and others licensed to produce cannabis under the Cannabis Act, may not be able to produce enough cannabis to meet adult-use demand. This may result in lower than expected sales and revenues and may result in increased competition for sales and sources of supply. This competition may adversely affect our adult-use business and there is no guarantee that we will be able to supply or acquire the supply, on commercially reasonable terms or at all, to meet the demand for medical and adult-use cannabis.

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In response to this surge in demand for cannabis, we and other cannabis producers in Canada may produce more cannabis than is needed to satisfy the collective demand of the Canadian medical and adult-use markets, and we may be unable to export that oversupply into other markets where cannabis use is fully legal under all federal and state or provincial laws. Additionally, the Canadian market may experience increased supply fluctuations as new form factors and products become available. As a result, the available supply of cannabis could exceed demand, resulting in a significant decline in the market price for cannabis. If this were to occur, there is no assurance that we would be able to generate sufficient revenue from the sale of adult-use cannabis to result in profitability.

In connection with the amended Canadian adult-use regulations which became effective October 17, 2019 and permitted new classes of cannabis on December 16, 2019, we will now offer cannabis-only vape products in Canada. The vape market is a niche market that remains subject to a great deal of uncertainty and is still evolving. Recent negative public sentiment and regulatory scrutiny of vaporizing in the United States may cause Health Canada to further limit usage and diminish Canadian consumer demand for our cannabis vape products.

Cannabis vape products in Canada are regulated under the Cannabis Act and the CR. Although this legislation sets clear rules and standards for the manufacture, composition, packaging, and marketing of cannabis vape products, these rules and standards predate the spate of vaping-related health issues that have recently arisen in the United States. These issues and accompanying negative public sentiment may prompt Health Canada or individual provinces/territories to further limit or defer industry’s ability to sell cannabis vape products, and may also diminish consumer demand for such products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to meet any additional compliance requirements or regulatory restrictions, or remain competitive in face of unexpected changes in market conditions.

Vaping, electronic cigarettes and related products were recently developed and therefore the scientific community has not had a sufficient period of time to study the long-term health effects of their use. Currently, there is no way of knowing whether these products are safe for their intended use and the medical community is still studying these products’ health effects. If the scientific community were to determine conclusively that use of any or all of these products poses long-term health risks, market demand for these products and their use could materially decline. Such a determination could also lead to litigation and significant regulation. Loss of demand for our product, product liability claims and increased regulation stemming from unfavorable scientific studies on cannabis vaping products could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The adult-use cannabis industry and market in Canada is subject to many of the same risks as the medical cannabis industry and market, including risks related to our need for regulatory approvals, the early status and uncertain growth of this industry and the competition we expect to face in this industry.

The adult-use cannabis industry and market in Canada is subject to certain risks that are unique to this industry, as well as the risks that are currently applicable to the medical cannabis industry, which are described under the heading above titled Risk Factors-Risks Related to our Medical Cannabis Business and the Medical Cannabis Industry.”

If any of these shared risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected in a number of ways, including by our not being able to successfully compete in the adult-use cannabis industry and by our being subject to fines, damage awards and other penalties as a result of regulatory infractions or other claims brought against us.

We may be unsuccessful in competing in the legal adult-use cannabis market in Canada.

Our Canadian adult-use business faces enhanced competition from other Licensed Producers and those individuals and corporations who are licensed under the Cannabis Act to participate in the adult-use cannabis industry.

As previously noted, there are hundreds of applications being processed for licenses under the CR. Moreover, the Cannabis Act allows individuals to cultivate, propagate, harvest and distribute up to four cannabis plants per household, provided that each plant meets certain requirements. If we are unable to effectively compete with other suppliers to the adult-use cannabis market, or a significant number of individuals take advantage of the ability to cultivate and use their own cannabis, our success in the adult-use business may be limited and may not fulfill the expectations of management.

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We will also face competition from existing Licensed Producers and other producers licensed under the Cannabis Act. Certain of these competitors have significantly greater financial, production, marketing, research and development and technical and human resources than we do. As a result, our competitors may be more successful than us in gaining market penetration and market share. Our commercial opportunity in the adult-use market could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors produce and commercialize products for the adult-use market that, among other things, are safer, more effective, more convenient or less expensive than the products that we may produce, have greater sales, marketing and distribution support than our products, enjoy enhanced timing of market introduction and perceived effectiveness advantages over our products and receive more favorable publicity than our products. If our adult-use products do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by the adult-use market, we may not generate sufficient revenue from these products, and our adult-use business may not become profitable.

There may be industry consolidation of one or more competitors, which could increase the competitive advantage of certain competitors and reduce overall market share opportunities. Additionally, Canadian provincial regulations are continuing to evolve, and individual provinces have imposed new regulations around expiry dates and age of consumption, thereby further reducing the size of our total addressable market. Increased consolidation and new and disparate provincial regulations could have a material effect on our business and results of operations.

General Business Risks and Risks Related to Our Financial Condition and Operations

We have a limited operating history and a history of net losses, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We began operating in 2014 and have yet to generate a profit. We generated net losses of $321.2 million, $67.7 million and $7.8 million for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Our accumulated deficit was $430.1 million as of December 31, 2019. We intend to continue to expend significant funds to increase our growing capacity, complete strategic mergers and acquisitions, invest in research and development, expand our marketing and sales operations to increase our base of registered patients and meet the compliance requirements as a public company.

Our efforts to grow our business may be more costly than we expect and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset higher operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including as a result of unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, the other risks described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other unknown events. The amount of future net losses will depend, in part, on the growth of our future expenses and our ability to generate revenue. If we continue to incur losses in the future, the net losses and negative cash flows incurred to date, together with any such future losses, will have an adverse effect on our stockholders equity and working capital. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with producing cannabis products, as outlined herein, we are unable to accurately predict when, or if, we will be able to achieve profitability. Even if we achieve profitability in the future, we may not be able to sustain profitability in subsequent periods. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market price of our Class 2 common stock may significantly decrease and our ability to raise capital, expand our business or continue our operations may be impaired.

We are exposed to risks relating to the laws of various countries as a result of our international operations.

We currently conduct operations in multiple countries and plan to expand these operations. As a result of our operations, we are exposed to various levels of political, economic, legal and other risks and uncertainties associated with operating in or exporting to these jurisdictions. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, changes in the laws, regulations and policies governing the production, sale and use of cannabis and cannabis-based products, political instability, instability at the United Nations level, currency controls, fluctuations in currency exchange rates and rates of inflation, labor unrest, changes in taxation laws, regulations and policies, restrictions on foreign exchange and repatriation and changing political conditions and governmental regulations relating to foreign investment and the cannabis business more generally.

Changes, if any, in the laws, regulations and policies relating to the advertising, production, sale and use of cannabis and cannabis-based products or in the general economic policies in these jurisdictions, or shifts in political attitude related thereto, may adversely affect the operations or profitability of our international operations in these countries. As we explore novel business models, such as global co-branded products, cannabinoid clinics and cannabis retail, international regulations will become increasingly challenging to manage. Specifically, our operations may be affected in varying degrees by government regulations with respect to, but not limited to,

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restrictions on advertising, production, price controls, export controls, controls on currency remittance, increased income taxes, restrictions on foreign investment, land and water use restrictions and government policies rewarding contracts to local competitors or requiring domestic producers or vendors to purchase supplies from a particular jurisdiction. Failure to comply strictly with applicable laws, regulations and local practices could result in additional taxes, costs, civil or criminal fines or penalties or other expenses being levied on our international operations, as well as other potential adverse consequences such as the loss of necessary permits or governmental approvals.

Furthermore, although we have begun production at Tilray Portugal with a view toward facilitating exports of our cannabis products to countries in the EU (or, as permissible, elsewhere) from Portugal rather than from Canada, there is no assurance that these EU (or non-EU) countries will authorize the import of our cannabis products from Portugal, or that Portugal will authorize or continue to authorize such exports, or that such exports will provide us with advantages over our current EU export strategy. Each country in the EU (or elsewhere) may impose restrictions or limitations on imports that require the use of, or confer significant advantages upon, producers within that particular country. As a result, we may be required to establish production facilities similar to Tilray Portugal in one or more countries in the EU (or elsewhere) where we wish to distribute our cannabis products in order to take advantage of the favorable legislation offered to producers in these countries.

We plan to expand our business and operations into jurisdictions outside of the current jurisdictions where we conduct business, and there are risks associated with doing so.

We plan in the future to expand our operations and business into jurisdictions outside of the jurisdictions where we currently carry on business. There can be no assurance that any market for our products will develop in any such foreign jurisdiction. We may face new or unexpected risks or significantly increase our exposure to one or more existing risk factors, including economic instability, new competition, changes in laws and regulations, including the possibility that we could be in violation of these laws and regulations as a result of such changes, and the effects of competition. These factors may limit our capability to successfully expand our operations in, or export our products to, those other jurisdictions.

Our business is subject to a variety of United States and foreign laws, many of which are unsettled and still developing and which could subject us to claims or otherwise harm our business.

We are subject to a variety of state and federal laws in the United States, Canada and elsewhere. In the United States, despite cannabis having been legalized at the state level for medical use in many states and for adult-use in a number of states, cannabis meeting the statutory definition of “marihuana” continues to be categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act, or the CSA, and subject to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, or the CSIEA. Hemp and marijuana both originate from the Cannabis sativa plant and CBD is a constituent of both. “Marihuana” or “marijuana” is defined in the CSA as a Schedule I controlled substance whereas “Hemp” is essentially any parts of the Cannabis sativa plant that has not been determined to be marijuana. Pursuant to the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, or the Farm Bill, “hemp,” or cannabis and cannabis derivatives containing no more than 0.3% of tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”), is now excluded from the statutory definition of “marijuana” and, as such, is no longer a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA. Our activity in the United States is limited to (a) certain corporate and administrative services, including accounting, legal and creative services, (b) supply of study drug for clinical trials under DEA and FDA authorization, and (c) participation in the market for hemp and hemp-derived products containing CBD in compliance with the Farm Bill; except as described above, we do not produce or distribute cannabis products in the United States. Therefore, we believe that we are not currently subject to the CSA or CSIEA.

We have commercialized in the United States a variety of hemp products, which might include certain cannabinoids including CBD, but would exclude THC at amounts more than 0.3%. While the Farm Bill exempted hemp and hemp derived products from the CSA, any such product commercialization will be subject to various laws, including the Farm Bill, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or the FD&CA, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, or DSHEA, applicable state and/or local laws, and FDA regulations. The FDA has stated in guidance and other public statements that it is prohibited to sell a food, beverage or dietary supplement to which THC or CBD has been added. While the FDA does not have a formal policy of enforcement discretion with respect to any products with added CBD, the agency has stated that its primary focus for enforcement centers on products that put the health and safety of consumers at risk, such as those claiming to prevent, diagnose, mitigate, treat, or cure diseases in the absence of requisite approvals. While the agency’s enforcement to date has therefore focused on

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products containing CBD and that make drug-like claims, there is the risk that the FDA could expand its enforcement activities and require us to alter our marketing for our hemp-derived CBD products or cease distributing them altogether. Nevertheless, the regulation of hemp and CBD in the United States has been a constantly evolving and changing landscape, with changes in federal and state laws and regulation occurring on a frequent basis. Violations of applicable FDA and other laws could result in warning letters, significant fines, penalties, administrative sanctions, injunctions, convictions or settlements arising from civil proceedings.

We are further subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the United States, Canada and elsewhere that prohibit money laundering, including the Proceeds of Crime and Terrorist Financing Act (Canada) and the Money Laundering Control Act (United States), as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines issued, administered or enforced by governmental authorities in the United States, Canada or any other jurisdiction in which we have business operations or to which we export. Although we believe that none of our activities implicate any applicable money laundering statutes, in the event that any of our business activities, any dividends or distributions therefrom, or any profits or revenue accruing thereby are found to be in violation of money laundering statutes, such transactions may be viewed as proceeds of crime under one or more of the statutes described above or any other applicable legislation, and any persons, including such United States-based investors, found to be aiding and abetting us in such violations could be subject to liability. Any violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our operations, involve significant management distraction and involve significant costs and expenses, including legal fees. We could also suffer severe penalties, including criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other remedial measures.

We are required to comply concurrently with federal, state or provincial, and local laws in each jurisdiction where we operate or to which we export our products.

Various federal, state or provincial and local laws govern our business in the jurisdictions in which we operate or propose to operate, or to which we export or propose to export our products, including laws and regulations relating to health and safety, conduct of operations and the production, management, transportation, storage and disposal of our products and of certain material used in our operations. Compliance with these laws and regulations requires concurrent compliance with complex federal, provincial or state and local laws. These laws change frequently and may be difficult to interpret and apply. Compliance with these laws and regulations requires the investment of significant financial and managerial resources, and a determination that we are not in compliance with these laws and regulations could harm our brand image and business. Moreover, it is impossible for us to predict the cost or effect of such laws, regulations or guidelines upon our future operations. Changes to these laws or regulations could negatively affect our competitive position within our industry and the markets in which we operate, and there is no assurance that various levels of government in the jurisdictions in which we operate will not pass legislation or regulation that adversely impacts our business.

United States regulations relating to hemp-derived CBD products are unclear and rapidly evolving.

Our participation in the market for hemp-derived CBD products in the United States and elsewhere may require us to employ novel approaches to existing regulatory pathways. Although the passage of the Farm Bill in December 2018 legalized the cultivation of hemp in the United States to produce products containing CBD and other non-THC cannabinoids, it remains unclear how the FDA will regulate this industry, and whether and when the FDA will propose or implement new or additional regulations. On May 31, 2019, the FDA held a public hearing to obtain scientific data and information about the safety, manufacturing, product quality, marketing, labeling, and sale of products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds, including CBD. The FDA has also formed an internal working group to evaluate the potential pathways to market for CBD products. It remains unclear how CBD products will be regulated by the agency going forward.

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In addition, such products may be subject to regulation at the state or local levels. While the Farm Bill created a pathway under which hemp and its derivatives are exempted from the definition of marijuana and, therefore, no longer at risk for deemed a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA and would be protected from interference in interstate commerce, notwithstanding the ongoing implementation of those provisions, state and local authorities have issued their own restrictions on the cultivation or sale of hemp or hemp-derived CBD. This includes laws that ban the cultivation or possession of hemp or any other plant of the cannabis genus and derivatives thereof, such as CBD. State regulators may take enforcement action against food and dietary supplement products that contain CBD, or enact new laws or regulations that prohibit or limit the sale of such products. Unforeseen regulatory obstacles or compliance costs may hinder our ability to successfully compete in the market for such products.

We may seek to enter into strategic alliances, or expand the scope of currently existing relationships, with third parties that we believe will have a beneficial impact on us, and there are risks that such strategic alliances or expansions of our currently existing relationships may not enhance our business in the desired manner.

We currently have, and may expand or reduce the scope of, and may in the future enter into, strategic alliances with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business. Examples of such strategic alliances include our agreement with Sandoz, joint venture with AB InBev and partnership with ABG Intermediate Holdings 2, LLC (“ABG”). Our ability to complete further strategic alliances is dependent upon, and may be limited by, among other things, the availability of suitable candidates and capital. In addition, strategic alliances could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs, may not enhance our business and may involve risks that could adversely affect us, including the investment of significant amounts of management time that may be diverted from operations in order to pursue and complete such transactions or maintain such strategic alliances. We may become dependent on our strategic partners and actions by such partners could harm our business. Future strategic alliances could result in the incurrence of debt, costs and contingent liabilities, and there can be no assurance that future strategic alliances will achieve, or that our existing strategic alliances will continue to achieve, the expected benefits to our business or that we will be able to consummate future strategic alliances on satisfactory terms, or at all.

We may not be able to successfully identify and execute future acquisitions, dispositions or other equity transactions or to successfully manage the impacts of such transactions on our operations.

Material acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic transactions involve a number of risks, including: (i) the potential disruption of our ongoing business; (ii) the distraction of management away from the ongoing oversight of our existing business activities; (iii) incurring additional indebtedness; (iv) the anticipated benefits and cost savings of those transactions not being realized fully, or at all, or taking longer to realize than anticipated; (v) an increase in the scope and complexity of our operations and (vi) the loss or reduction of control over certain of our assets. Material acquisitions have been and may continue to be material to our business strategy. There is no guarantee that acquisitions, such as High Park Gardens and Manitoba Harvest, will be accretive.

On December 12, 2019, Privateer Holdings, Inc. merged with and into a wholly owned subsidiary of Tilray (the “Downstream Merger”). We incurred and may continue to incur substantial costs and expenses relating directly to the Downstream Merger, including fees and expenses payable to financial advisors, other professional fees and expenses, insurance premium costs, fees and costs relating to regulatory filings and notices, SEC filing fees, printing and mailing costs and other transaction-related costs, fees and expenses. These fees and expenses could have a significant effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation. We have also been subject to demands and a complaint related to the Downstream Merger. Responding to such actions could divert management’s attention away from our business operations and result in substantial costs.

The existence of one or more material liabilities of an acquired company that are unknown to us at the time of acquisition could result in our incurring those liabilities. A strategic transaction may result in a significant change in the nature of our business, operations and strategy, and we may encounter unforeseen obstacles or costs in implementing a strategic transaction or integrating any acquired business into our operations.

We are subject to risks inherent in an agricultural business, including the risk of crop failure.

We grow cannabis, which is an agricultural process. As such, our business is subject to the risks inherent in the agricultural business, including risks of crop failure presented by weather, insects, plant diseases and similar agricultural risks. Although we currently grow our products indoors under climate controlled conditions, we are

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developing outdoor operations and there can be no assurance that natural elements, such as insects and plant diseases, will not entirely interrupt our production activities or have an adverse effect on our business.

We depend on significant customers for a substantial portion of our revenue. If we fail to retain or expand our customer relationships or if this significant customer were to terminate its relationship with us or reduce its purchases, our revenue could decline significantly.

Two customers accounted 13% each of our revenue, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2019. We had one customer that accounted for 24% of our revenue for 2018. No one customer accounted for greater than 10% of our revenue in 2017. We believe that our operating results for the foreseeable future will continue to depend on sales to a small number of customers. These customers have no purchase commitments and may cancel, change or delay purchases with little or no notice or penalty. As a result of this customer concentration, our revenue could fluctuate materially and could be materially and disproportionately impacted by purchasing decisions of these customers or any other significant customer. In the future, these customers may decide to purchase less product from us than they have in the past, may alter purchasing patterns at any time with limited notice, or may decide not to continue to purchase our products at all, any of which could cause our revenue to decline materially and materially harm our financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to diversify our customer base, we will continue to be susceptible to risks associated with customer concentration.

We may be unable to attract or retain key personnel with sufficient experience in the cannabis industry, and we may be unable to attract, develop and retain additional employees required for our development and future success.

Our success is largely dependent on the performance of our management team and certain employees and our continuing ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and skilled employees. Qualified individuals are in high demand, and we may incur significant costs to attract and retain them. The loss of the services of any key personnel, or an inability to attract other suitably qualified persons when needed, could prevent us from executing on our business plan and strategy, and we may be unable to find adequate replacements on a timely basis, or at all. We do not currently maintain key-person insurance on the lives of any of our key personnel.

Further, each director and officer, as well as certain additional key personnel, of a company that holds a license is subject to the requirement to obtain and maintain a security clearance from Health Canada under the CR. Moreover, under the CR, an individual with security clearance must be physically present on site when other individuals are conducting activities with cannabis. Under the CR and the Cannabis Act, a security clearance is valid for a limited time and must be renewed before the expiry of a current security clearance. There is no assurance that any of our existing personnel who presently or may in the future require a security clearance will be able to obtain or renew such clearances or that new personnel who require a security clearance will be able to obtain one. A failure by an individual in a key operational position to maintain or renew his or her security clearance could result in a reduction or complete suspension of our operations. In addition, if an individual in a key operational position leaves us, and we are unable to find a suitable replacement who is able to obtain a security clearance required by the CR in a timely manner, or at all, we may not be able to conduct our operations at planned production volume levels or at all. In addition, the CR requires us to designate a qualified individual in charge who is responsible for supervising activities relating to the production of study drug for clinical trials, which individual must meet certain educational and security clearance requirements. If our current designated qualified person in charge fails to maintain his security clearance, or if our current designated qualified person in charge leaves us and we are unable to find a suitable replacement who meets these requirements, we may no longer be able to continue our clinical trial activities.

Increased labor costs, potential organization of our workforce, employee strikes and other labor-related disruption may adversely affect our operations.

Apart from certain employees in Portugal, none of our employees are represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement. In Portugal, some of our employees are subject to a government-mandated collective bargaining agreement, which grants affected employees certain additional benefits beyond those required by the local labor code. We cannot assure you that our labor costs going forward will remain competitive because in the future our workforce may organize and labor agreements may be put in place that have significantly higher labor rates and company obligations; at the same time, our competitors may maintain significantly lower

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labor costs, thereby reducing or eliminating our comparative advantages vis-à-vis one or more of our competitors or the larger industry; additionally, our labor costs may increase in connection with our growth.

Significant interruptions in our access to certain supply chains for key inputs such as raw materials, electricity, water and other utilities may impair our cannabis growing operations.

Our business is dependent on a number of key inputs and their related costs (certain of which are sourced in other countries and on different continents), including raw materials, supplies and equipment related to our operations, as well as electricity, water and other utilities. Recently, the Wuhan coronavirus has spread across the world, and it may develop into a pandemic.  We operate global manufacturing facilities, and have dispersed suppliers and customers. If a disease spreads sufficiently to cause a pandemic (or to cause the fear of a pandemic to rise) or governments regulate or restrict the flow of labor or products, the Company's operations, suppliers, customers and distribution channels could be severely impacted.  Such a pandemic could also have an adverse impact on consumer demand for our products and prices for our raw materials. Any significant interruption, price increase or negative change in the availability or economics of the supply chain for key inputs and, in particular, rising or volatile energy costs could curtail or preclude our ability to continue production. In addition, our operations would be significantly affected by a prolonged power outage.

Our ability to compete and grow cannabis is dependent on us having access, at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner, to skilled labor, equipment, parts and components. No assurances can be given that we will be successful in maintaining our required supply of labor, equipment, parts and components.

Fluctuations in cannabinoid prices relative to contracted prices with third party suppliers could negatively impact our earnings.

A portion of our results of operations and financial condition, as well as the selling prices for our products, are dependent upon cannabinoid supply contracts. As part of our normal course operations, we periodically enter into large and medium-to-long-term supply contracts with third-party growers. Production and pricing of cannabinoids are determined by constantly changing market forces of supply and demand over which we have limited or no control. The market for cannabis biomass is particularly volatile compared to other commoditized markets due to the relatively nascent maturity of the industry in which we operate. Furthermore, the lack of centralized data and large variations in product quality make it difficult to establish a “spot price” for cannabinoids, and develop an effective price hedging strategy. Accordingly, supply contracts with any term may prove to be costly in the future to the extent cannabinoid prices decrease dramatically or at a faster rate than anticipated. Furthermore, supply contracts typically include minimum purchase requirements which could force us to buy significant quantities of product at non-competitive prices in a rapidly changing market.

If we are unable to price our products competitively as a result of committed supply contracts that do not reflect current or future market prices, then our profitability, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to transport our cannabis products to consumers in a safe and efficient manner.

Due to our direct-to-consumer shipping model for medical cannabis in Canada, we depend on fast and efficient third-party transportation services to distribute our medical cannabis products. We also use such services to transfer bulk shipments to provinces and territories for further distribution to consumers. Any prolonged disruption of third-party transportation services, such as the ongoing Canada Post labor disruptions, could have a material adverse effect on our sales volumes or satisfaction with our services. Rising costs associated with third-party transportation services used by us to ship our products may also adversely impact our profitability, and more generally our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The security of our products during transportation to and from our facilities is of the utmost concern. A breach of security during transport or delivery could result in the loss of high-value product and forfeiture of import and export approvals, since such approvals are shipment specific. Any failure to take steps necessary to ensure the safekeeping of our cannabis could also have an impact on our ability to continue supplying provinces and territories, to continue operating under our existing licenses, to renew or receive amendments to our existing licenses or to receive required new licenses.

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Our cannabis products may be subject to recalls for a variety of reasons, which could require us to expend significant management and capital resources.

Manufacturers and distributors of products are sometimes subject to the recall or return of their products for a variety of reasons, including product defects, such as contamination, adulteration, unintended harmful side effects or interactions with other substances, packaging safety and inadequate or inaccurate labeling disclosure. Although we have detailed procedures in place for testing finished cannabis products, there can be no assurance that any quality, potency or contamination problems will be detected in time to avoid unforeseen product recalls, regulatory action or lawsuits, whether frivolous or otherwise. If any of the cannabis products produced by us are recalled due to an alleged product defect or for any other reason, we could be required to incur the unexpected expense of the recall and any legal proceedings that might arise in connection with the recall. As a result of any such recall, we may lose a significant amount of sales and may not be able to replace those sales at an acceptable gross profit or at all. In addition, a product recall may require significant management attention or damage our reputation and goodwill or that of our products or brands.

We have experienced product recalls in the past. For example, in April 2019, we commenced a recall of one lot of prerolls supplied to the Canadian adult-use market due to labeling error. In each of our prior recalls, we were able to complete the recall or withdrawal; however, there is no assurance that such incidents will not result in regulatory action or civil lawsuits, whether frivolous or otherwise, or an adverse effect on our reputation or goodwill, or that of our products or brands.

Additionally, product recalls may lead to increased scrutiny of our operations by Health Canada or other regulatory agencies, requiring further management attention, increased compliance costs and potential legal fees, fines, penalties and other expenses. Any product recall affecting the cannabis industry more broadly, whether or not involving us, could also lead consumers to lose confidence in the safety and security of the products sold by Licensed Producers generally, including products sold by us.

We may be subject to product liability claims or regulatory action if our products are alleged to have caused significant loss or injury. This risk is exacerbated by the fact that cannabis use may increase the risk of serious adverse side effects.

As a manufacturer and distributor of products which are ingested by humans, we face the risk of exposure to product liability claims, regulatory action and litigation if our products are alleged to have caused loss or injury. We may be subject to these types of claims due to allegations that our products caused or contributed to injury or illness, failed to include adequate instructions for use or failed to include adequate warnings concerning possible side effects or interactions with other substances. This risk is exacerbated by the fact that cannabis use may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia and other psychoses, symptoms for individuals with bipolar disorder, and other side effects. Previously unknown adverse reactions resulting from human consumption of cannabis products alone or in combination with other medications or substances could also occur. In addition, the manufacture and sale of cannabis products, like the manufacture and sale of any ingested product, involves a risk of injury to consumers due to tampering by unauthorized third parties or product contamination. We have in the past recalled, and may again in the future have to recall, certain of our cannabis products as a result of potential contamination and quality assurance concerns. A product liability claim or regulatory action against us could result in increased costs and could adversely affect our reputation and goodwill with our patients and consumers generally. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain product liability insurance on acceptable terms or with adequate coverage against potential liabilities. Such insurance is expensive and may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all. The inability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage on reasonable terms or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims could result in us becoming subject to significant liabilities that are uninsured and also could adversely affect our commercial arrangements with third parties.

We rely on third-party distributors to distribute our products, and those distributors may not perform their obligations.

We rely on third-party distributors, including pharmaceutical distributors, courier services, and government agencies, and may in the future rely on other third parties, to distribute our products. If these distributors do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, if there is a delay or interruption in the distribution of our products, such as the Canada Post labor disruptions previously experienced, or if these third parties damage our products, it could negatively impact our revenue from product sales. Any damage to our products, such as product spoilage,

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could expose us to potential product liability, damage our reputation and the reputation of our brands or otherwise harm our business.

We, or the cannabis industry more generally, may receive unfavorable publicity or become subject to negative consumer or investor perception.

We believe that the cannabis industry is highly dependent upon positive consumer and investor perception regarding the benefits, safety, efficacy and quality of the cannabis distributed to consumers. The perception of the cannabis industry and cannabis products, currently and in the future, may be significantly influenced by scientific research or findings, regulatory investigations, litigation, political statements, media attention and other publicity (whether or not accurate or with merit) both in Canada and in other countries relating to the consumption of cannabis products, including unexpected safety or efficacy concerns arising with respect to cannabis products or the activities of industry participants. There can be no assurance that future scientific research, findings, regulatory proceedings, litigation, media attention or other research findings or publicity will be favorable to the cannabis market or any particular cannabis product or will be consistent with earlier publicity. Adverse future scientific research reports, findings and regulatory proceedings that are, or litigation, media attention or other publicity that is, perceived as less favorable than, or that questions, earlier research reports, findings or publicity (whether or not accurate or with merit) could result in a significant reduction in the demand for our cannabis products. Further, adverse publicity reports or other media attention regarding the safety, efficacy and quality of cannabis, or our products specifically, or associating the consumption of cannabis with illness or other negative effects or events, could adversely affect us. This adverse publicity could arise even if the adverse effects associated with cannabis products resulted from consumers failure to use such products legally, appropriately or as directed.

Certain events or developments in the cannabis industry more generally may impact our reputation.

Damage to our reputation can result from the actual or perceived occurrence of any number of events, including any negative publicity, whether true or not. As a producer and distributor of cannabis, which is a controlled substance in Canada that has previously been commonly associated with various other narcotics, violence and criminal activities, there is a risk that our business might attract negative publicity. There is also a risk that the actions of other Licensed Producers or of other companies and service providers in the cannabis industry may negatively affect the reputation of the industry as a whole and thereby negatively impact our reputation. The increased usage of social media and other web-based tools used to generate, publish and discuss user-generated content and to connect with other users has made it increasingly easier for individuals and groups to communicate and share negative opinions and views in regards to our activities and the cannabis industry in general, whether true or not.

We do not ultimately have direct control over how we or the cannabis industry is perceived by others. Reputational issues may result in decreased investor confidence, increased challenges in developing and maintaining community relations and present an impediment to our overall ability to advance our business strategy and realize on our growth prospects.

Licensed Producers are constrained by law in their ability to market their products in Canada.

The development of our business and operating results may be hindered by applicable restrictions on sales and marketing activities imposed by Health Canada. The regulatory environment in Canada limits our ability to compete for market share in a manner similar to other industries. All products we distribute into the Canadian adult-use market must comply with requirements under Canadian legislation, including with respect to product formats, product packaging, product composition and marketing activities around such products. As such, our portfolio of brands and products has been specifically adapted, and our marketing activities carefully structured, to enable us to develop our brands in an effective and compliant manner. If we are unable to effectively market our cannabis products and compete for market share, or if the costs of compliance with government legislation and regulation cannot be absorbed through increased selling prices for our cannabis products, then our sales and operating results could be adversely affected.

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If we are not able to comply with all safety, health and environmental regulations applicable to our operations and industry, we may be held liable for any breaches of those regulations.

Safety, health and environmental laws and regulations affect nearly all aspects of our operations, including product development, working conditions, waste disposal, emission controls, the maintenance of air and water quality standards and land reclamation, and, with respect to environmental laws and regulations, impose limitations on the generation, transportation, storage and disposal of solid and hazardous waste. Continuing to meet GMP standards, which we follow voluntarily, requires satisfying additional standards for the conduct of our operations and subjects us to ongoing compliance inspections in respect of these standards. Compliance with safety, health and environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures, and failure to comply with such safety, health and environmental laws and regulations may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the temporary or permanent suspension of operations, the imposition of clean-up costs resulting from contaminated properties, the imposition of damages and the loss of or refusal of governmental authorities to issue permits or licenses to us or to certify our compliance with GMP standards. Exposure to these liabilities may arise in connection with our existing operations, our historical operations and operations that we may undertake in the future. We could also be held liable for worker exposure to hazardous substances and for accidents causing injury or death. There can be no assurance that we will at all times be in compliance with all safety, health and environmental laws and regulations notwithstanding our attempts to comply with such laws and regulations.

Changes in applicable safety, health and environmental standards may impose stricter standards and enforcement, increased fines and penalties for non-compliance, more stringent environmental assessments of proposed projects and a heightened degree of responsibility for companies and their officers, directors and employees. We are not able to determine the specific impact that future changes in safety, health and environmental laws and regulations may have on our industry, operations and/or activities and our resulting financial position; however, we anticipate that capital expenditures and operating expenses will increase in the future as a result of the implementation of new and increasingly stringent safety, health and environmental laws and regulations. Further changes in safety, health and environmental laws and regulations, new information on existing safety, health and environmental conditions or other events, including legal proceedings based upon such conditions or an inability to obtain necessary permits in relation thereto, may require increased compliance expenditures by us.

We may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage in respect of the risks our business faces, the premiums for such insurance may not continue to be commercially justifiable or there may be coverage limitations and other exclusions which may result in such insurance not being sufficient to cover potential liabilities that we face.

We currently have insurance coverage, including product liability insurance, protecting many, but not all, of our assets and operations. Our insurance coverage is subject to coverage limits and exclusions and may not be available for the risks and hazards to which we are exposed. In addition, no assurance can be given that such insurance will be adequate to cover our liabilities, including potential product liability claims, or will be generally available in the future or, if available, that premiums will be commercially justifiable. If we were to incur substantial liability and such damages were not covered by insurance or were in excess of policy limits, we may be exposed to material uninsured liabilities that could impede our liquidity, profitability or solvency.

We may become subject to liability arising from any fraudulent or illegal activity by our employees, contractors, consultants and others.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, service providers and licensors may engage in fraudulent or other illegal activity. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional undertakings of unauthorized activities, or reckless or negligent undertakings of authorized activities, in each case on our behalf or in our service that violate: (i) government regulations, specifically Health Canada regulations; (ii) manufacturing standards; (iii) Canadian federal and provincial healthcare laws and regulations; (iv) laws that require the true, complete and accurate reporting of financial information or data; (v) United States federal laws banning the possession, sale or importation of cannabis into the United States and prohibiting the financing of activities outside the United States that are unlawful under Canadian or other foreign laws or (vi) the terms of our agreements with insurers. In particular, we could be exposed to class action and other litigation, increased Health Canada inspections and related sanctions, the loss of current GMP compliance certifications or the inability to obtain future GMP compliance certifications, lost sales and revenue or reputational damage as a result of prohibited activities that are undertaken in the growing or production process of our products without our knowledge or permission and contrary to our internal policies, procedures and operating requirements.

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We cannot always identify and prevent misconduct by our employees and other third parties, including service providers and licensors, and the precautions taken by us to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown, unanticipated or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from such misconduct. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of civil, criminal or administrative penalties, damages, monetary fines and contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings or curtailment of our operations.

We may experience breaches of security at our facilities or loss as a result of the theft of our products.

Because of the nature of our products and the limited legal channels for distribution, as well as the concentration of inventory in our facilities, we are subject to the risk of theft of our products and other security breaches. A security breach at any one of our facilities could result in a significant loss of available products, expose us to additional liability under applicable regulations and to potentially costly litigation or increase expenses relating to the resolution and future prevention of similar thefts, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to risks related to our information technology systems, including the risk that we may be the subject of a cyber-attack and the risk that we may be in non-compliance with applicable privacy laws.

We have entered into agreements with third parties for hardware, software, telecommunications and other information technology, or IT, services in connection with our operations. Our operations depend, in part, on how well we and our vendors protect networks, equipment, IT systems and software against damage from a number of threats, including, but not limited to, cable cuts, damage to physical plants, natural disasters, intentional damage and destruction, fire, power loss, hacking, computer viruses, vandalism, theft, malware, ransomware and phishing attacks. Any of these and other events could result in IT system failures, delays or increases in capital expenses. Our operations also depend on the timely maintenance, upgrade and replacement of networks, equipment and IT systems and software, as well as preemptive expenses to mitigate the risks of failures. The failure of IT systems or a component of IT systems could, depending on the nature of any such failure, adversely impact our reputation and results of operations.

There are a number of laws protecting the confidentiality of certain patient health information and other personal information, including patient records, and restricting the use and disclosure of that protected information. In particular, the privacy rules under the Personal Information Protection and Electronics Documents Act (Canada), or the PIPEDA, the European Unions’ General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), and similar laws in other jurisdictions, protect medical records and other personal health information by limiting their use and disclosure to the minimum level reasonably necessary to accomplish the intended purpose. We collect and store personal information about our consumers and are responsible for protecting that information from privacy breaches. A privacy breach may occur through a procedural or process failure, an IT malfunction or deliberate unauthorized intrusions. Theft of data for competitive purposes, particularly patient lists and preferences, is an ongoing risk whether perpetrated through employee collusion or negligence or through deliberate cyber-attack. Moreover, if we are found to be in violation of the privacy or security rules under PIPEDA or other laws protecting the confidentiality of patient health information, including as a result of data theft and privacy breaches, we could be subject to sanctions and civil or criminal penalties, which could increase our liabilities and harm our reputation.

As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. While we have implemented security resources to protect our data security and information technology systems, such measures may not prevent such events. Significant disruption to our information technology system or breaches of data security could have a material adverse effect on our business financial condition and results of operations.

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We may be unable to sustain our revenue growth and development.

Our revenue has grown in recent years. Our ability to sustain this growth will depend on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to, the availability of sufficient capital on suitable terms, changes in laws and regulations respecting the production and distribution of cannabis products, competition from other Licensed Producers, the size of the black market, the size of the Canadian adult-use market, and our ability to produce sufficient volumes of our cannabis-based products to meet demand. Regulatory changes in the United States, Germany and Canada may continue to attract market entrants, therefore diluting our potential opportunity and early-mover advantage. In addition, we are subject to a variety of business risks generally associated with developing companies. Future development and expansion could place significant strain on our management personnel and likely will require us to recruit additional management personnel, and there is no assurance that we will be able to do so.

We may be unable to expand our operations quickly enough to meet demand or manage our operations beyond their current scale.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to manage our expanding operations, including any acquisitions, effectively, that we will be able to sustain or accelerate our growth or that such growth, if achieved, will result in profitable operations, that we will be able to attract and retain sufficient management personnel necessary for continued growth or that we will be able to successfully make strategic investments or acquisitions.

Demand for cannabis-based products is dependent on a number of social, political and economic factors that are beyond our control. There is no assurance that an increase in existing demand will occur, that we will benefit from any such demand increase or that our business will remain profitable even in the event of such an increase in demand. If we are unable to achieve or sustain profitability, the value of our Class 2 common stock and the notes may significantly decrease.

The cannabis industry continues to face significant funding challenges, and we may not be able to secure adequate or reliable sources of funding required to operate our business or increase our production to meet consumer demand for our products.

The continued development of our business will require significant additional financing, and there is no assurance that we will obtain the financing necessary to be able to achieve our business objectives. Our ability to obtain additional financing will depend on investor demand, our performance and reputation, market conditions and other factors. Our inability to raise such capital could result in the delay or indefinite postponement of our current business objectives or in our inability to continue to carry on our business. There can be no assurance that additional capital or other types of financing will be available if needed or that, if available, the terms of such financing will be favorable to us.

In addition, from time to time, we may enter into transactions to acquire assets or the capital stock or other equity interests of other entities. Our continued growth may be financed, wholly or partially, with debt, which may increase our debt levels above industry standards. Any debt financing secured in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. Debt financings may also contain provisions that, if breached, may entitle lenders or their agents to accelerate the repayment of loans or realize a first priority security over our significant operating assets, and there is no assurance that we would be able to repay such loans in such an event or prevent the enforcement of security granted pursuant to any such debt financing.

Our senior secured credit facility contains covenant restrictions that may limit our ability to operate our business.

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On February 28, 2020, we entered into a senior secured credit facility with Bridging Finance Inc. in an aggregate principal amount of $59.6 million (C$79.8 million) (the “Senior Facility”). The Senior Facility contains, and any of our other future debt agreements may contain, covenant restrictions that limit our ability to operate our business, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things, incur additional debt or issue guarantees, create additional liens, repurchase stock or make other restricted payments, and make certain voluntary prepayments of specified debt. As a result of these covenants, our ability to respond to changes in business and economic conditions and engage in beneficial transactions, including to obtain additional financing as needed, may be restricted. Furthermore, our failure to comply with our debt covenants could result in a default under our debt agreements, which could permit the holders to accelerate our obligation to repay the debt. If any of our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds available to repay it.

Servicing our debt will require a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.

As of December 31, 2019, we had $475 million in aggregate principal indebtedness (refer to Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K).

On February 28, 2020, we entered into the Senior Facility with an aggregate principal amount of $59.6 million (C$79.8 million). Our substantial consolidated indebtedness may increase our vulnerability to any generally adverse economic and industry conditions. We and our subsidiaries may, subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, incur additional debt, secure existing or future debt or recapitalize our debt.  Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our current and future indebtedness, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business has not generated positive cash flow from operations. If this continues into the future, we may not have sufficient cash flows to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our current and future indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company and our management is required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.

As a public company, we have incurred and will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur prior to our IPO. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and rules implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Global Select Market, impose various requirements on public companies, including requirements to file annual, quarterly and event-driven reports with respect to our business and financial condition and operations and establish and maintain effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Effective January 1, 2020, we became a “large accelerated filer” under SEC reporting rules and, and are required to file our annual report and quarterly reports more quickly than we previously had been required to file them, which may require us to dedicate additional resources to the timely filing of such reports.  In addition, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404, we are required to furnish a report by our management on our Internal Controls over Financial Reporting (“ICFR”), which must be accompanied by an attestation report on ICFR issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we have documented and evaluated our ICFR, which has been both costly and challenging. We expect our costs to increase substantially in order to comply with these additional and more burdensome requirements. Our existing management team has and will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives, and we may need to hire additional personnel to assist us with complying with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time consuming and costly.

Management may not be able to successfully implement adequate internal controls over financial reporting.

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. As defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d(f) under the Exchange Act, internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with United States Generally Accepted

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Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”). Our management and other personnel have limited experience operating a public company, which may result in a failure of our ICFR and Disclosure Controls and Procedures (“DCP”) necessary to ensure timely and accurate reporting of operational and financial results. Due to inherent limitations, our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect all misstatements, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of control deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

As of December 31, 2019 we identified material weaknesses in two components of internal control as defined by COSO 2013 (Control Environment and Control Activities).

We did not maintain an effective control environment based on the criteria established in the COSO framework. We have identified deficiencies in the principles associated with the control environment of the COSO framework. Specifically, these control deficiencies constitute material weaknesses, either individually or in the aggregate, relating to: (i) appropriate organizational structure, reporting lines, and authority and responsibilities in pursuit of objectives, (ii) our commitment to attract, develop, and retain competent individuals, and (iii) holding individuals accountable for their internal control related responsibilities.  

As of December 31, 2019, we did not maintain an effective control environment to allow for the accurate and timely filing of our financial statements primarily attributable to the following factor:

We did not have a sufficient complement of accounting and financial reporting personnel with an appropriate level of knowledge, US GAAP proficiency, experience and training commensurate with our financial reporting requirements.

We did not fully design and implement effective control activities based on the criteria established in the COSO framework. We have identified deficiencies in the principles associated with the control activities component of the COSO framework. Specifically, these control deficiencies constitute material weaknesses, either individually or in the aggregate, relating to: (i) Selecting and developing control activities that contribute to the mitigation of risks to the achievement of objectives to acceptable levels, (ii) deploying control activities through policies that establish what is expected and procedures that put policies into action.

We did not have effective controls in response to the risks of material misstatement. This material weakness is primarily attributable to the following factors:

We did not have an adequate process or appropriate controls in place to support the accurate reporting of our financial results and disclosures on our Form 10-K.

We did not have effective controls over the completeness and accuracy of key spreadsheets and reports used in financial reporting.

We did not have adequate review procedures around the recording of manual entries.

Due to the existence of the above material weaknesses, management, including the CEO and CFO, has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2019. These material weaknesses create a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement to the consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

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Conflicts of interest may arise between us and our directors and officers as a result of other business activities undertaken by such individuals.

We may be subject to various potential conflicts of interest because some of our directors and executive officers may be engaged in a range of business activities. In addition, our directors and executive officers are permitted under their applicable agreements with us to devote time to their outside business interests, so long as such activities do not materially or adversely interfere with their duties to us and subject to any contractual restrictions restricting such activities. These business interests could require the investment of significant time and attention by our executive officers and directors. In some cases, our executive officers and directors, including our Chief Executive Officer and President, Brendan Kennedy and board member, Michael Auerbach, may have fiduciary obligations associated with business interests that interfere with their ability to devote time to our business and affairs, which could adversely affect our operations. Please refer to “Part II, Item 8. Note 22 – Related-Party Transactions” to our financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

Third parties with whom we do business may perceive themselves as being exposed to reputational risk as a result of their relationship with us.

The parties with whom we do business, or would like to do business, may perceive that they are exposed to reputational risk as a result of our business activities relating to cannabis, which could hinder our ability to establish or maintain business relationships. These perceptions relating to the cannabis industry may interfere with our relationship with service providers, particularly in the financial services industry.

Tax and accounting requirements may change in ways that are unforeseen to us and we may face difficulty or be unable to implement or comply with any such changes.

We are subject to numerous tax and accounting requirements, and changes in existing accounting or taxation rules or practices, or varying interpretations of current rules or practices, could have a significant adverse effect on our financial results, the manner in which we conduct our business or the marketability of any of our products. We currently have international operations and plan to expand such operations in the future. These operations, and any expansion thereto, will require us to comply with the tax laws and regulations of multiple jurisdictions, which may vary substantially. Complying with the tax laws of these jurisdictions can be time consuming and expensive and could potentially subject us to penalties and fees in the future if we were to fail to comply.

Because a significant portion of our sales are generated in Canada, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could harm our results of operations.

The reporting currency for our financial statements is the United States dollar. We derive a significant portion of our revenue and incur a significant portion of our operating costs in Canada, and changes in exchange rates between the Canadian dollar and the United States dollar may have a significant, and potentially adverse, effect on our results of operations. Our primary risk of loss regarding foreign currency exchange rate risk is caused by fluctuations in the exchange rates between the United States dollar and the Canadian dollar, although as we expand internationally, we will be subject to additional foreign currency exchange risks. Because we recognize revenue in Canada in Canadian dollars, if the Canadian dollar weakens against the United States dollar it would have a negative impact on our Canadian operating results upon the translation of those results into U.S. dollars for the purposes of consolidation. In addition, a weakening of the Canadian dollar against the United States dollar would make it more difficult for us to meet our obligations under the convertible notes. We have not historically engaged in hedging transactions and do not currently contemplate engaging in hedging transactions to mitigate foreign exchange risks. As we continue to recognize gains and losses in foreign currency transactions, depending upon changes in future currency rates, such gains or losses could have a significant, and potentially adverse, effect on our results of operations.

We may have exposure to greater than anticipated tax liabilities, which could seriously harm our business.

Our income tax obligations are based on our corporate operating structure and third-party and intercompany arrangements, including the manner in which we develop, value and use our intellectual property and

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the valuations of our intercompany transactions. The tax laws applicable to our international business activities, including the laws of the United States, Canada and other jurisdictions, are subject to change and uncertain interpretation. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology, intercompany arrangements or transfer pricing, which could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and the amount of taxes that we pay and seriously harm our business. Taxing authorities may also determine that the manner in which we operate our business is not consistent with how we report our income, which could increase our effective tax rate and the amount of taxes that we pay and could seriously harm our business. In addition, our future income taxes could fluctuate because of earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates, by changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities or by changes in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles. We are subject to regular review and audit by United States federal and state and foreign tax authorities. Any adverse outcome from a review or audit could seriously harm our business. In addition, determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment by management, and there are many transactions where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe that the amounts recorded in our financial statements are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome relating to such amounts may differ for such period or periods and may seriously harm our business.

The long-term effect of United States tax reform could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

On December 22, 2017, the legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was enacted, which contains significant changes to United States tax law, including, but not limited to, a reduction in the corporate tax rate, limitation of the tax deduction for interest expense (with certain exceptions), limitation of the deduction for net operating losses arising after 2017 to 80% of current year taxable income and elimination of carryback of such net operating losses, one-time taxation of offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, immediate deductions for certain new investments instead of deductions for depreciation expense over time, modifying or repealing many business deductions and credits, deemed repatriation of certain intangible related income and a transition to a new quasi-territorial system of taxation. Notwithstanding the reduction in the corporate income tax rate, our business and financial condition could be adversely affected in future periods by the overall impact of the Tax Act. In addition, the Tax Act could be amended or subject to technical correction, possibly with retroactive effect, which could change the financial impacts that were recorded at December 31, 2019, or are expected to be recorded in future periods. Additionally, further guidance may be forthcoming from the Financial Accounting Standards Board and SEC, as well as regulations, interpretations and rulings from federal and state tax agencies, which could result in additional impacts, possibly with retroactive effect. Any such changes or potential additional impacts could adversely affect our business and financial condition. We will continue to examine and assess the impact this tax reform legislation may have on our business.

As a result of an investment in our securities, you could be prevented from entering the United States or become subject to a lifetime ban on entry into the United States.

United States Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) has confirmed that border agents may seek to permanently ban any foreign visitor who admits to working or investing in the cannabis industry, or admits to having used cannabis, even though adult-use cannabis is now legal in Canada. CBP confirmed that investing even in publicly-traded cannabis companies is considered facilitation of illicit drug trade under CBP policy. This policy is limited to citizens of foreign countries and not citizens of the United States. Therefore, as a result of an investment in our securities, if you are not a citizen of the United States, you could be prevented from entering the United States or could become subject to a lifetime ban on entry into the United States.

Risks Related to our Intellectual Property

We may be subject to risks related to the protection and enforcement of our intellectual property rights, or intellectual property we license from others, and may become subject to allegations that we or our licensors are in violation of intellectual property rights of third parties.

The ownership, licensing and protection of trademarks, patents and intellectual property rights are significant aspects of our future success. Unauthorized parties may attempt to replicate or otherwise obtain and use our products and technology. Policing the unauthorized use of our current or future trademarks, patents or other

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intellectual property rights now or in the future could be difficult, expensive, time consuming and unpredictable, as may be enforcing these rights against the unauthorized use by others. Identifying the unauthorized use of intellectual property rights is difficult as we may be unable to effectively monitor and evaluate the products being distributed by our competitors, including parties such as unlicensed dispensaries and black-market participants, and the processes used to produce such products. In addition, in any infringement proceeding, some or all of our trademarks, patents or other intellectual property rights or other proprietary know-how, and that which we license from others, or arrangements or agreements seeking to protect the same for our benefit, may be found invalid, unenforceable, anti-competitive or not infringed or may be interpreted narrowly and such proceeding could put existing intellectual property applications at risk of not being issued.

In addition, other parties may claim that our products, or those that we license from others, infringe on their proprietary or patent protected rights. Such claims, whether or not meritorious, may result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources and legal fees, result in injunctions or temporary restraining orders or require the payment of damages. As well, we may need to obtain licenses from third parties who allege that we have infringed on their lawful rights. Such licenses may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, we may not be able to obtain or utilize on terms that are favorable to us, or at all, licenses or other rights with respect to intellectual property that we do not own.

We also rely on certain trade secrets, technical know-how and proprietary information that are not protected by patents to maintain our competitive position. Our trade secrets, technical know-how and proprietary information, which are not protected by patents, may become known to or be independently developed by competitors, which could adversely affect us.

We license some intellectual property rights, and the failure of the owner of such intellectual property to properly maintain or enforce the intellectual property underlying such licenses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and performance.

We are party to a number of licenses, including with entities formerly affiliated with the former Privateer Holdings, that give us rights to use third-party intellectual property that is necessary or useful to our business. Our success will depend, in part, on the ability of the licensor to maintain and enforce its licensed intellectual property, in particular, those intellectual property rights to which we have secured exclusive rights. Without protection for the intellectual property we have licensed, other companies might be able to offer substantially similar products for sale or utilize substantially similar processes, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

Any of our licensors may allege that we have breached our license agreement, whether with or without merit, and accordingly seek to terminate our license. If successful, this could result in our loss of the right to use the licensed intellectual property, which could adversely affect our ability to commercialize our products or services, as well as have a material adverse effect on us.

We may not realize the full benefit of the clinical trials or studies that we participate in because the terms of some of our agreements to participate do not give us full rights to the resulting intellectual property, the ability to acquire full rights to that intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms or the ability to prevent other parties from using that intellectual property.

Although we have participated in several clinical trials, we are not the sponsor of many of these trials and, as such, do not have full control over the design, conduct and terms of the trials. In some cases, for instance, we are only the provider of a cannabis study drug for a trial that is designed and initiated by an independent investigator within an academic institution. In such cases, we are often not able to acquire rights to all the intellectual property generated by the trials. Although the terms of all clinical trial agreements entered into by us provide us with, at a minimum, ownership of intellectual property relating directly to the study drug being trialed ( e.g. intellectual property relating to use of the study drug), and ownership of intellectual property that does not relate directly to the study drug is often retained by the institution. As such, we are vulnerable to any dispute among the investigator, the institution and us with respect to classification and therefore ownership of any particular piece of intellectual property generated during the trial. Such a dispute may affect our ability to make full use of intellectual property generated by a clinical trial.

Where intellectual property generated by a trial is owned by the institution, we are often granted a right of first negotiation to obtain an exclusive license to such intellectual property. If we exercise such a right, there is a risk

39


that the parties will fail to come to an agreement on the license, in which case such intellectual property may be licensed to other parties or commercialized by the institution.

We may not realize the full benefit of our licenses if the licensed material has less market appeal than expected, or if restrictions on packaging and marketing hinder our ability to realize value from our licenses, and our licenses may not be profitable to us.

An integral part of our Canadian adult-use cannabis business strategy involves obtaining territorially exclusive licenses to produce products using various brands and images. As a licensee of brand-based properties, we have no assurance that a particular brand or property will translate into a successful adult-use cannabis product. Additionally, a successful brand may not continue to be successful or maintain a high level of sales. As well, the popularity of licensed properties may not result in popular products or the success of the properties with the public. Promotion, packaging and labelling of adult-use cannabis is strictly regulated. These restrictions may further hinder our ability to benefit from our licenses. Acquiring or renewing licenses may require the payment of minimum guaranteed royalties that we consider to be too high to be profitable, which may result in losing licenses we currently hold when they become renewable under their terms or missing business opportunities for new licenses. If we are unable to acquire or maintain successful licenses on advantageous terms, or to derive sufficient revenue from sales of licensed products, our adult-use business may not be successful.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities

Holders of Class 2 common stock have limited voting rights as compared to holders of Class 1 common stock. We cannot predict the impact that our capital structure and concentrated control by former Privateer Holdings stockholders may have on the market price of our Class 2 common stock.

Following consummation of the Downstream Merger, Brendan Kennedy (our Chief Executive Officer and President and a director), Michael Blue and Christian Groh, including individual and affiliated entities, beneficially own or control approximately 75% of the voting power of our capital stock. Class 1 common stock, held entirely by such individuals and affiliated entities, has 10 votes per share, resulting in such individuals and affiliated entities controlling a majority of the voting power of all outstanding shares of our capital stock and control of all matters that may be submitted to our stockholders for approval as long as they hold at least approximately 10% of all outstanding shares of our capital stock. Generally, a transfer by these individuals and entities of the Class 1 common stock they hold would cause a conversion of such shares into Class 2 common stock (including, if there is a transfer of Class 1 common stock, or entering into a binding agreement with respect to the power to vote or direct the voting of such shares). However, a transfer to certain entities controlled by such individuals, such as estate planning entities, would not result in a conversion and these individuals would continue to hold Class 1 common stock the superior voting rights of 10 votes per share. This concentrated control reduces other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our stockholders other than Messrs. Kennedy, Blue and Groh do not view as beneficial. Further, the concentration of the ownership of our Class 1 common stock may prevent or delay the consummation of change of control transactions that stockholders other than or Messrs. Kennedy, Blue and Groh may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. As a result, the market price of our Class 2 common stock could be adversely affected.

Additionally, while other companies listed on United States stock exchanges have publicly traded classes of stock with limited voting rights, we cannot predict whether this structure, combined with concentrated control by Messrs. Kennedy, Blue and Groh will result in a lower trading price or greater fluctuations in the trading price of our Class 2 common stock as compared to the market price were we to have a single class of common stock, or will result in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences.

40


The price of our Class 2 common stock in public markets has experienced and may experience significant fluctuations.

The market price for our Class 2 common stock, and the market price of stock of other companies operating in the cannabis industry, has been extremely volatile. For example, during the year ended December 31, 2019, the trading price of our Class 2 common stock has fluctuated between a low sales price of $15.57and a high sales price of $106.00 per share, demonstrating an unusual degree of volatility even relative to other cannabis companies during the same time period. The market price of our Class 2 common stock may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the following: (i) actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations; (ii) recommendations by securities research analysts; (iii) changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other issuers that investors deem comparable to us; (iv) the addition or departure of our executive officers or other key personnel; (v) the release or expiration of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our common stock, including as it relates to the Downstream Merger; (vi) sales or perceived sales, or the expectation of future sales, of our common stock; (vii) significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors; (viii) news reports relating to trends, concerns, technological or competitive developments, regulatory changes and other related issues in the cannabis industry or our target markets; and (ix) the impact of the Downstream Merger.

Future sales or distributions of our securities, including by former Privateer Holdings stockholders who received shares of our common stock in the Downstream Merger, could cause the market price for our Class 2 common stock to fall significantly.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the market perception that the holders of a large number of shares of our Class 2 common stock, or shares of our Class 1 common stock which are convertible into Class 2 common stock on a one-for-one basis, intend to sell our Class 2 common stock, could significantly reduce the market price of our Class 2 common stock.

Pursuant to the Downstream Merger, former Privateer Holdings stockholders who received shares of our common stock in the Downstream Merger entered into a lock-up agreement.  Each Privateer Holdings equity holder who received shares of our stock in the Downstream Merger is subject to a lock-up allowing for the sale of such shares only under certain circumstances over a two-year period. During the first year following the closing of the Downstream Merger, unless otherwise approved by us, shares will be released only pursuant to certain offerings or sales arranged by and at our discretion. We may also determine to release shares from the lock-up in the absence of an offering or arranged sale if we determine it to be in the Company’s best interest. At the end of the first year, to the extent not already released at our discretion as a result of the aforementioned offerings or sales or otherwise, 50 percent of the total shares subject to the lock-up will be released, or approximately 37.5 million shares. Over the course of the second year following closing, the remaining shares will be subject to a staggered release in four equal quarterly increments, which we also could choose to waive to allow earlier release in our discretion.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future public sales of these securities or the availability of these securities for sale will have on the market price of our Class 2 common stock. Shares held by former Privateer stockholders represent approximately 75 million shares or 73% of our currently outstanding shares and, therefore, a significant overhang on our stock.  If 50 percent of the former Privateer Holdings stockholders are released on the one-year anniversary of the Downstream Merger or a significant portion were released earlier by us, it could put significant downward pricing pressure on our stock. If the market price of our Class 2 common stock were to drop as a result, this might impede our ability to raise additional capital and might cause our remaining stockholders to lose all or part of their investment.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class 2 common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the securities or industry analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. In addition, if our operating results fail to meet the forecast of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

41


We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the convertible notes in cash or to repurchase the convertible notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the convertible notes.

Holders of the convertible notes have the right to require us to repurchase their convertible notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the convertible notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of the convertible notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our Class 2 common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the convertible notes being converted. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of convertible notes surrendered. In addition, our ability to repurchase the convertible notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the convertible notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase convertible notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of the convertible notes as required by the indenture would constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the convertible notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

The conditional conversion feature of the convertible notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the convertible notes is triggered, holders of convertible notes will be entitled to convert the convertible notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their convertible notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our Class 2 common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders of convertible notes do not elect to convert their convertible notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the convertible notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.

42


Holders of our Class 2 common stock may be subject to dilution resulting from future offerings of common stock by us.

We may raise additional funds in the future by issuing common stock or equity-linked securities. Holders of our securities have no preemptive rights in connection with such further issuances. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine if an issuance of our capital stock is warranted, the price at which such issuance is to be effected and the other terms of any future issuance of capital stock. In addition, additional common stock will be issued by us in connection with the exercise of options or grant of other equity awards granted by us. Such additional equity issuances could, depending on the price at which such securities are issued, substantially dilute the interests of the holders of our existing securities.

Conversion of the convertible notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our Class 2 common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the convertible notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. Upon conversion of the convertible notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our Class 2 common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our Class 2 common stock. If we elect to settle our conversion obligation in shares of our Class 2 common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our Class 2 common stock, any sales in the public market of our Class 2 common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Class 2 common stock. In addition, the existence of the convertible notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the convertible notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the convertible notes into shares of our Class 2 common stock could depress the price of our Class 2 common stock.

It is not anticipated that any dividends will be paid to holders of our Class 2 common stock for the foreseeable future, if any.

No dividends on our Class 2 common stock have been paid to date. We anticipate that, for the foreseeable future, we will retain future earnings and other cash resources for the operation and development of our business. The payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account many factors, including our earnings, operating results, financial condition and current and anticipated cash needs.

Provisions in our corporate charter documents could make an acquisition of us more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Provisions in our corporate charter and our bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of us that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our Class 2 common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our Class 2 common stock. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors. Because our board of directors is responsible for appointing the members of our management team, these provisions could in turn affect any attempt by our stockholders to replace current members of our management team. Among others, these provisions include the following:

our board of directors is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms which may delay or prevent a change of our management or a change in control;

our board of directors has the right to elect directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

our stockholders may not act by written consent or call special stockholders meetings; as a result, a holder, or holders, controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to take certain actions other than at annual stockholders meetings or special stockholders meetings called by the board of directors, the chairman of the board or our chief executive officer;

our certificate of incorporation prohibits cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;

43


stockholders must provide advance notice and additional disclosures in order to nominate individuals for election to the board of directors or to propose matters that can be acted upon at a stockholders meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirers own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company; and

our board of directors may issue, without stockholder approval, shares of undesignated preferred stock; the ability to issue undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.

Certain jurisdictions may take positions adverse to investments in, or investors themselves, in cannabis companies.

Certain jurisdictions may prohibit or restrict its citizens or residents from investing in or transacting with companies involved in the cannabis industry, even if such companies only conduct business in jurisdictions where cannabis is legal. For example, if an investor in the United Kingdom profits from an investment in a cannabis producer or supplier, such investment may technically violate the United Kingdom Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. Similar prohibitions or restrictions may apply in other jurisdictions where cannabis has not been legalized. In addition, such prohibitions and restriction may limit your ability to receive dividends if such dividends were to be declared in the future. However, no dividends on our Class 2 common stock have been paid to date and we do not anticipate that, for the foreseeable future, we will pay dividends on our Class 2 common stock.

Certain provisions in the indenture governing the convertible notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.

Certain provisions in the indenture governing the convertible notes may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, the indenture governing the convertible notes requires us to repurchase the convertible notes for cash upon the occurrence of a fundamental change and, in certain circumstances, to increase the relevant conversion rate for a holder that converts its convertible notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we repurchase the convertible notes and/or increase the conversion rate, which could make it more costly for a potential acquirer to engage in such takeover. Such additional costs may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of us that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for:

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;

any action asserting a claim against us arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; and

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. This exclusive forum provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. To the extent that any such claims may be based upon federal law claims, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.

44


Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision. It is possible that a court of law could rule that the choice of forum provision contained in our restated certificate of incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable if it is challenged in a proceeding or otherwise.

These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholders ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find the exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could seriously harm our business.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Our headquarters is located in Nanaimo, British Columbia. Our Nanaimo campus is comprised of one manufacturing and R&D facility which we own and one leased building of office space. We also have five manufacturing locations owned or leased, located in Enniskillen, Leamington and London, Ontario, as well as in Ste. Agathe and Winnipeg, Manitoba. In Cantanhede, Portugal, we own one manufacturing location and land adjacent to this facility for future expansion. We also have leased space in Seattle, Washington, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Toronto, Ontario and Berlin, Germany to be used for general corporate and administrative purposes. We believe that our facilities and committed leased space are currently adequate to meet our needs. As we continue to expand our operations, we may need to lease additional or alternative facilities.

420 Investments Ltd. Litigation

On February 21, 2020, 420 Investments Ltd., as Plaintiff (“420”), filed a lawsuit against Tilray Inc. and High Park Shops Inc. (“High Park”), as Defendants, in Calgary, Alberta in the Court of Queen’s Bench of Alberta.  In August 2019, Tilray and High Park entered into an Arrangement Agreement with 420 and others. Pursuant to the Arrangement Agreement, High Park was to acquire the securities of 420.  In February 2020, Tilray and High Park gave notice of termination of the Arrangement Agreement. The Plaintiff alleges that the termination was unlawful and without merit and further alleges that the Defendants had no legal basis to terminate. The Plaintiff alleges that the Defendants did not meet their contractual and good faith obligations under the Arrangement Agreement. The Plaintiff seeks an order of specific performance (compelling the closing of the Arrangement Agreement).  Alternatively, in the absence of specific performance, the Plaintiff seeks damages in the stated amount of C$120 million, plus C$20 million in aggravated damages. Tilray’s and High Park’s Statement of Defense is due March 21, 2020, and no trial date has been set.  

Braun Litigation

On February 27, 2020, stockholders Braun and Noorian filed a class action and derivative complaint in the Delaware Court of Chancery styled Braun v. Kennedy, C.A. No. 2020-0137. The suit named Brendan Kennedy, Christian Groh, Michael Blue, Maryscott Greenwood, Michael Auerbach, and Privateer Evolution, LLC (as successor to Privateer Holdings, Inc.) as defendants and Tilray as a nominal defendant. The complaint asserts claims for breach of fiduciary duty against Kennedy, Groh, Blue, and Privateer Evolution, LLC for alleged breaches of fiduciary duty in their capacity as Tilray’s controlling stockholders and against Kennedy, Greenwood, and Auerbach for alleged breaches of fiduciary duties in their capacities as directors and/or officers of Tilray in connection with the Downstream Merger.

The complaint alleges that the Privateer Defendants breached their fiduciary duties by causing Tilray to enter into the Downstream Merger and Tilray’s Board to approve that Downstream Merger, and that Defendants Kennedy, Greenwood, and Auerbach breached their fiduciary duties as directors by approving the Downstream Merger. Plaintiffs allege that the Downstream Merger gave the Privateer Defendants hundreds of millions of dollars

45


of tax savings in which Tilray did not share equally and that it unfairly transferred and extended Kennedy, Blue, and Groh’s control over Tilray.

We believe we have meritorious defenses to these matters and will continue to vigorously defend against them, but there are no assurances as to their outcome at this time.  An adverse judgment or award against the Company in these cases could result in an event of default under the terms of the Senior Facility or the convertible notes.

From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any other legal proceedings other than described above, the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

 

46


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our Class 2 common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TLRY.”  

Holders

As of March 2, 2020, there were approximately 569 holders of record of our Class 2 common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid dividends on our Class 2 common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support operations and to finance the growth and development of our business. Any declared dividends will be declared on both our Class 1 common stock and Class 2 common stock at the same rate per share. We do not intend to declare or pay cash dividends on our Class 2 common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors subject to applicable laws and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions and capital requirements. Because a significant portion of our operations is conducted through our wholly owned subsidiaries, our ability to pay dividends depends in part on our receipt of cash dividends from such subsidiaries, which may further restrict our ability to pay dividends as a result of the laws of their jurisdiction of organization or covenants under any future outstanding indebtedness such subsidiaries incur. Our future ability to pay cash dividends on our Class 2 common stock is limited by the terms of the Senior Facility and cannot be paid without the consent of Bridging Finance Inc., as well as any future debt or preferred securities.

The equity plan compensation information called for by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K will be set forth under the heading “Equity Compensation Plan Information” in the Company’s 2020 Proxy Statement.

Recent sales of unregistered securities; use of proceeds from registered securities.

Each issuance of common stock described below, unless otherwise noted, were exempt from registration under Section 4(2) of the Securities Act 1933 in transactions by an issuer not involving a public offering.

In connection with consummation of the previously disclosed Profit Participation Agreement and Payment Agreement with ABG Intermediate Holdings 2, LLC (“ABG”) on January 14, 2019, pursuant to which we purchased from ABG participation rights in up to 49% of the net (i.e. post-expense) royalties from cannabis products bearing brands currently within the ABG portfolio that ABG receives from the exploitation of certain ABG brands in connection with the development, marketing and sale of cannabis-related products, we issued 840,107 shares of Class 2 Common Stock in March 2019.

On June 12, 2019, the Company issued 28,361 shares of Class 2 Common Stock in exchange for a minority investment in a Canadian cannabis retailer that provides for collaboration between the two companies in the sale and distribution of the Company’s High Park portfolio of branded cannabis products.

On July 12, 2019, the Company issued 79,289 shares of Class 2 Common Stock in connection with the acquisition of Smith & Sinclair Ltd., which crafts edible candies, cocktails and fragrances in the United Kingdom and enables the Company to develop CBD-infused edibles for distribution in Canada, the United States and Europe.

On September 13, 2019, the Company issued 128,670 shares of Class 2 Common Stock in exchange for a minority investment in a Canadian cannabis retailer that provides for collaboration between the two companies in the sale and distribution of the Company’s High Park portfolio of branded cannabis products.

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On September 19, 2019, the Company issued 63,747 shares of Class 2 Common Stock as a portion of the purchase consideration for a 50% equity interest in a cannabis edibles manufacturer, pursuant to which the Company and such manufacturer will develop and manufacture cannabis products for phase two of adult-use legalization in Canada.

On September 20, 2019, the Company issued 161,632 shares of Class 2 Common Stock in exchange for a convertible note issued by a specialized equipment company.

On October 15, 2019 and October 22, 2019, the Company issued 2,147 shares and 2,006 shares of its Class 2 common stock, respectively, in satisfaction of certain performance milestones in connection with its previously disclosed acquisition of Natura Naturals Holdings Inc.

On August 28, 2019, the Company issued 899,306 shares of Class 2 Common Stock to FHF Holdings Ltd. as a portion of the purchase price consideration in connection with the previously disclosed acquisition of Manitoba Harvest. These securities were issued as exempt securities under Section 3(a)(10) of the Securities Act of 1933.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph reflects the cumulative total return to our stockholders during the period from July 19, 2018 through December 31, 2019 in comparison to the indicated indexes. The results assume that $100 was invested on July 19, 2018 in our Class 2 common stock and each of the indicated indexes.

 

 

 

 

July 18,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

Tilray Inc.

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

414.94

 

 

$

100.76

 

Nasdaq Composite

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

84.94

 

 

$

116.15

 

Horizons Marijuana Life Sciences Index

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

86.32

 

 

$

57.12

 

 

This information under “Stock Performance Graph” is not deemed filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is not to be incorporated by reference in any filing of Tilray under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and irrespective of any general incorporation language in those filings.

48


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following selected financial data should be read together with our financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

 

2019(1)

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2016

 

 

 

(in thousands of United States dollars, except for share and per share data)

 

Earnings data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue (inclusive of excise duties of $13,136, $1,200, $0 and $0 respectively)

 

$

166,979

 

 

$

43,130

 

 

$

20,538

 

 

$

12,644

 

Operating loss

 

$

(301,702

)

 

$

(57,650

)

 

$

(7,498

)

 

$

(7,049

)

Net loss

 

$

(321,169

)

 

$

(67,723

)

 

$

(7,809

)

 

$

(7,883

)

Net loss per share - basic and diluted

 

$

(3.20

)

 

$

(0.82

)

 

$

(0.10

)

 

$

(0.11

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance sheet data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

896,330

 

 

$

656,667

 

 

$

53,948

 

 

$

33,093

 

Total liabilities, less current portion

 

$

518,632

 

 

$

433,077

 

 

$

8,579

 

 

$

8,576

 

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)

 

$

285,271

 

 

$

197,653

 

 

$

(4,852

)

 

$

2,528

 

 

(1)

Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted new accounting pronouncements as described in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 2, “New accounting pronouncements recently adopted”. Prior year balances remain unchanged.

49


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the financial information and the notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in this Annual Report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 (“Annual Report”). Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or “forward -looking information” within the meaning of Canadian securities laws. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “will,” “would” or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions or variations. Such forward-looking statements and forward-looking information are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements or forward-looking information. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” set forth in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other SEC and Canadian public filings. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and while we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements or forward-looking information as predictions of future events. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements or forward-looking information speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements or forward-looking information to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.

Amounts are presented in thousands of United States dollars, except for per share data or as otherwise noted. The Canadian dollar (“C$”) equivalents presented are derived using the average exchange rate during the reporting period. Amounts are individually converted by multiplying the United States dollar to Canadian dollar rate to determine the Canadian dollar amount.

Overview

Our vision is to build the world’s most trusted and valuable cannabis and hemp company. We are pioneering the future of medical, wellness and adult-use cannabis and hemp research, cultivation, processing and distribution globally, and we are one of the leading suppliers of adult-use cannabis in Canada and a leading supplier of hemp products in North America.

We have supplied high-quality cannabis products to tens of thousands of patients in fifteen countries spanning five continents through our subsidiaries in Australia, Canada, Germany, Latin America and Portugal, and through agreements with established pharmaceutical distributors. We cultivate medical and adult-use cannabis in Canada and medical cannabis in Europe.  We operate only in countries where cannabis or hemp-derived cannabinoids are legal, by which we mean the activities in those countries are permitted under all applicable federal and state or provincial and territory laws.  

We are witnessing a global paradigm shift for cannabis and hemp, and as a result of this shift, the transformation of a multibillion dollar industry from a state of prohibition to a state of legalization. Medical cannabis is now authorized at the national or federal level in forty-one countries. The legal market for medical cannabis is still in its early stages and we believe the number of countries with legalized regimes will continue to increase. We believe that as this transformation occurs, trusted global brands with multinational supply chains will become market leaders by earning the confidence of patients, doctors, governments and adult consumers around the world.

50


We are a leader in the Canadian adult-use market. We have entered into agreements to supply certain provinces and territories with our adult-use products for sale through the distribution systems they have established. Adult-use legalization occurred in Canada on October 17, 2018 and on October 17, 2019, the Canadian adult-use regulations were amended to permit the sale of new class of cannabis including edibles, beverages and vape products.

We introduced our phase two products, which we refer to as Cannabis 2.0 products, in December 2019. The new additions included new confectionery brand Chowie Wowie™; new wellness brand Rmdy.™; new beverage brand Everie, developed by Fluent (High Park Company’s joint venture with Labatt Breweries of Canada), and brings to the Canadian market, all-in-one-vape-pens and cartridges U.S. brand Marley Natural™, and confectionary brand Goodship™. An assortment of our Cannabis 2.0 products shipped on December 16, 2019. We expect the adult-use market to represent a higher proportion of our revenues as new consumers participate in, and previously illicit consumers adopt, Canada’s framework for the sale of cannabis.

We welcomed Manitoba Harvest to our portfolio of companies on February 28, 2019. Manitoba Harvest is the world’s largest hemp food manufacturer and a leader in the natural foods industry, producing, manufacturing, marketing and distributing a broad-based portfolio of hemp-based (cannabis) consumer products sold in over 16,000 stores at major retailers across the United States and Canada. Manitoba Harvest also launched a line of CBD products in the United States in 2019, which are available in over 500 locations.

We continue to develop strategic alliances, such as our collaboration with Sandoz to increase the availability of high quality medical cannabis products, and our joint venture with Anheuser-Busch InBev (“AB InBev”), through its subsidiary Labatt Breweries of Canada, to research non-alcohol beverages containing tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) and cannabidiol (“CBD”), demonstrating our continuing commitment to pioneer the development of a professional, transparent, and well-regulated cannabis industry. In the third quarter of 2019, we partnered with Cannfections Group Inc., a leader in the confectionery space with 85 years of experience developing and producing the world’s favorite confectionary brands, to further build our product and manufacturing capacity of confectionery cannabis products and expedite innovation and new products to market.

On January 14, 2019, we entered into a Profit Participation Arrangement with ABG Intermediate Holdings 2, LLC (“ABG”) where we purchased: (i) participation rights in up to 49% of the net (i.e. post-expense) cannabis revenues from certain existing ABG brands into perpetuity, (ii) guaranteed minimum receipt of $10 million annually for ten years (prorated based on total consideration paid to ABG) in quarterly payments for participation rights, (iii) preferred supplier rights of all cannabinoid ingredients for products under cannabis-related licenses of certain existing ABG brands into perpetuity, (iv) preferred royalty rates for us to license and develop cannabis products for brands currently within the ABG portfolio, and (v) first negotiation and matching rights related to participation rights in net cannabis revenues for any additional brands acquired by ABG after entering into the Profit Participation Arrangement. As consideration for this arrangement, we paid to date approximately $33 million in cash and 1,680,214 shares of Class 2 common stock. We also agreed to pay approximately $83 million, in a combination of Class 2 common stock and up to $17 million in cash at ABG’s election, upon certain triggers relating to the regulatory status of THC in the United States, or receipt of $5 million in participation rights distributions from cannabis products containing THC outside the United States, in accordance with terms outlined in the arrangement.  Further information can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 4, “ABG Profit Participation Arrangement”. On January 24, 2020, we entered into an amendment related to the ABG Profit Participation Arrangement (refer to “Subsequent events”).

51


On February 15, 2019, we acquired Natura Naturals Holdings Inc. (“Natura”), a licensed cultivator under the Cannabis Act specializing in greenhouse cultivation. Our acquisition of Natura increases our capacity to supply high-quality branded cannabis products to the Canadian market. The purchase price of approximately $54 million consists of approximately $15 million in cash and 180,332 shares of Class 2 common stock issued on closing, approximately $20 million contingent consideration based on production levels, and effective settlement of pre-existing debt and previously held interest. We have paid $4.45 million in Class 2 common stock in relation to contingent consideration on December 2, 2019. Production levels for the remaining period were not expected to be achieved and as a result the fair value is nil at December 31, 2019. Further information can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 3, “Business Combinations.”

On February 28, 2019, we acquired FHF Holdings Ltd. (“Manitoba Harvest”), a developer and distributor of a diverse portfolio of hemp-based natural food and wellness products that enables us to expand into the growing CBD product market in the United States. The purchase price of approximately $310 million consists of approximately $115 million in cash and 1,209,946 shares of Class 2 common stock issued on closing, approximately $37 million in cash and approximately $32 million in Class 2 common stock issued six months after closing, and approximately $29 million contingent consideration based on gross branded CBD product sales in the United States in 2019. Manitoba Harvest did not earn the $29 million contingent consideration as its CBD sales for 2019 did not achieve the thresholds.  Further information can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 3, “Business Combinations”.

On July 11, 2019, we acquired Smith & Sinclair Ltd. (“S&S”), which crafts edible candies, fragrances and creative consumables in the United Kingdom and enables us to develop CBD-infused edibles and beverages as well as alcohol-infused edibles for distribution in Canada, United States and Europe. The purchase consideration includes approximately $2 million in cash and 79,289 shares of Class 2 common stock issued on closing, and approximately $2 million contingent consideration based on revenue as well as the launch of CBD product in the United States and Europe or THC product in Canada by milestones in 2019 and 2020. The contingent consideration has been remeasured to $420 at December 31, 2019. Further information can be found in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Note 3, “Business Combinations”.

On August 28, 2019, we signed a definitive agreement to acquire 420 Investments Ltd. (“420”), an adult-use cannabis retail operator in Alberta, Canada. The purchase price consisted of $53 million in shares of Class 2 common stock on closing and up to $30 million of contingent consideration subject to the achievement of certain performance milestones by 420. On February 4, 2020, we served 420 with a notice of breach and a notice of termination pursuant to the Arrangement Agreement due to a material adverse change under such agreement.

On February 21, 2020, 420 Investments Ltd., as Plaintiff (“420”), filed a lawsuit against Tilray Inc. and High Park Shops Inc. (“High Park”), as Defendants, in Calgary, Alberta in the Court of Queen’s Bench of Alberta.  Plaintiff alleges unlawful termination of the merger agreement, and seeks specific performance of the transactions, or, alternatively, monetary damages in the amount of C$120 million, plus C$20 million in aggravated damages.  We believe that this claim is without merit, and we intend to defend this case vigorously, but there are no assurances as to its outcome at this early stage.

Business Segments

We report our operating results in two segments: (i) Cannabis (licensed), and (ii) Hemp (unlicensed).  The business segments reflect how our operations are managed, how resources are allocated, how operating performance is evaluated by senior management and the structure of our internal financial reporting.  Our Cannabis segment sales consists of adult-use, medical and bulk sales of cannabis under regulated licenses and sold to retail, wholesale, pharmacy, government, and direct to patient.  Our Hemp segment sales consist of hemp seed, hemp foods, board spectrum hemp extract containing CBD that are sold in an unlicensed operation and sold to retail, wholesale and direct to consumers.

We evaluate the financial results of these segments focusing primarily on segment revenue and gross profit or loss. We utilize segment revenue, gross profit and segment income (loss) from operations because we believe they provide useful information for effectively allocating our resources between segments, evaluating the health of our business segments based on metrics that management can actively influence and gauging our investments.

52


Key Operating Metrics

We use the following key operating metrics to evaluate our business and operations, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, project our future performance and make strategic decisions.

Other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate key operating metrics with similar names differently which may reduce their usefulness as comparative measures.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

2019 vs 2018

Change

 

 

2018 vs 2017

Change

 

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

Qty/$

 

 

%

 

 

Qty/$

 

 

%

 

Kilogram equivalents sold- cannabis

 

 

35,380

 

 

 

6,478

 

 

 

3,024

 

 

 

28,902

 

 

 

446

%

 

 

3,454

 

 

 

114

%

Kilograms harvested - cannabis

 

 

50,144

 

 

 

11,022

 

 

 

6,779

 

 

 

39,122

 

 

 

355

%

 

 

4,243

 

 

 

63

%

Thousand units sold - hemp products

 

 

7,826